How did William of Orange help England?

Johann Gottfried Herder


  • Johann Gottfried Herder
  • Editor's note
  • Adrastea.
  • I. Realities and characters of the past century.
  • 2. John Bull.
  • 3. Louis XIV.
  • 4. Maintenon. Fénélon.
  • 5. Academies under Louis XIV.
  • 6. French Academy.
  • 7. Fine arts under Louis XIV.
  • 8. French refugees.
  • 9. Bayle.
  • 10. French clergy.
  • 11. William of Orange. English church.
  • 12. John Locke. The free thinkers.
  • 13. Shaftesbury. Principle of virtue.
  • 14. Shaftesbury. Spirit and happiness.
  • 15. Shiny Quindecennium of Queen Anna.
  • 16. He and you.
  • 17th summer. Adddison. Peterborough.
  • 18. Jonathan Swift.
  • 19. Jonathan Swift. Opposite side.
  • 20. Pope. Bolingbroke.
  • Character traits of some of the foregoing.
  • II. Fruits from the so-called golden times of the eighteenth century. This is where it begins third Piece (II. 1) of the Adrastea. - D.
  • 1. story.
  • 2. Memories ().
  • 3. Thoughts (), maxims.
  • 4. Didactic poems.
  • 5th fable.
  • 6. Fairy tales and novels.
  • 7. Idyll.
  • 8. Images, allegories and personifications.
  • 9. Dance. Melodrama.
  • 10. The drama.
  • 11. The comedy.
  • Chapter 37
  • 1. Charles XII.
  • August 2nd of Poland and Stanislaus I.
  • 3. Peter the Great.
  • 4. Prussian crown.
  • 5. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
  • 6. Secular hopes.
  • 7. Propaganda.
  • 1. Isaac Newton's Law of Gravity.
  • 2. Newton's telescope.
  • 3. Newton's theory of light and colors.
  • 4. Newton and Kepler.
  • 5. Handel.
  • Chapter 50
  • 1. Christianization of the Chinese Empire.
  • 2. Paraguay.
  • 3. A Christian aurora at the North Pole.
  • 4. Zinzendorf
  • 5. Conversion of the Jews.
  • 6. Freethinkers now Hettner's "History of Literature in the Eighteenth Century", I. 168 ff. - D.
  • 7. Mandeville's Fable of the Bees. Hettner, a. a. O. p. 206 ff. - D.
  • 8. Freemasons.
  • 9. Enthusiasm. Methodists.
  • 10. Atlantis.
  • VII. Fruits from the so-called golden times of the eighteenth century.
  • 13. Folk song.
  • 14. Epopee
  • VIII. Entry of Norse Mythology to Modern Poetry. This essay was irrational in the Adrastea as sixth the "Theoxenia" designated. - D.
  • Review of the Adrastea, the sixth volume, published in two parts in 1804. The designation Gleanings on the Adrastea we have that after Herder's Death published edition of his Works taken. - D.
  • 1. Nemesis of the story.
  • 2. Doubt. Resolution of doubts.
  • 3. Oriental literature.
  • 4. Persepolis.Herder had in the meantime also written Persepolitan Letters, which only appeared in the Works published. You are in the XIX. Parts of our edition. - D.
  • Chapter 70
  • 6. Questions.
  • 7. German Highness.
  • Chapter 73
  • 9. The man and his shadow Nobody.
  • Chapter 75
  • Chapter 76
  • 12. Berkeley.
  • 13. Thoughts from Berkeley. This one thoughts are drawn from several excerpts that the immortalized on the monument that he admired his highly Berkeley wanted to erect, from whose writings had collected. You can serve here to illuminate the commenced unfinished outline of the mental image of one of the most philanthropic men. -Note d. Ed. A wise state has no thing closer to its heart than that Upbringing the youth.
  • Chapter 79
  • 15.We add this announcement after the first Output of Herder's works, "On beautiful literature and art". XII. (1809) added. - D. Announcement of the »Aurora«.
  • Chapter 81
Johann Gottfried Herder

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11. William of Orange. English church.

It is the order of things that people's foolish exaggerations promote precisely the opposite of what they want. The more contemptuously Ludwig met the Dutch, the closer they pressed themselves to their governor, William of Orange; they did more for him than they would have done for a king. Several German princes did the same; the terrible picture of one Universal monarchy of Ludwig in Europe, as trivial as it was, made that cold warrior, the personal enemy of the universal monarch, the focal point and focal point of the security of an entire part of the world. Complete the nets in which Ludwig wrapped the unhappy Stuart house papist zealwith whom he incited Charles II, even more the last king of this tribe, to the point of nonsense, to introduce the Roman religion in England, they helped Wilhelm, before France even knew it, to the English throne. Won almost without a sword strike he three crowns, and England through him almost more than she herself had given him, one Validity of the constitutionthat it could only win under this cold alien.

A single event of its kind was Wilhelm's crossing to England. The storm spared the Dutch fleet and struck the English; William calmly climbed ashore and went slowly, on and on, to London, while the greats, the greater part of the royal army, the universities and cities, found themselves with him. The den suffering obedience The clergy had preached, how cheap, was the last; some of them, out of more than papist stubbornness, remained his sworn enemies until the end of their lives. And yet because of her, too Salvation of the Protestant religion and English freedom, Wilhelm was called over, sailed over. Coldly he declared that when he had achieved this purpose he could sail back as well; he didn't care about a crown. Despite all the urging of those calling, he had not rushed to make up his mind to come; he had expected the point of maturity.

So when he sat on the throne, one of his first concerns was to free the English Church not only from foreign papism, but also from the internal division that has been so-called for more than a century high church divorced from their brothers, the dissenters (dissenters, Presbyterians and others). At least mutual toleration To establish a legal basis between all parties after so long persecutions was his earnest endeavor; and was he wrong in this? Didn't they all come to life one Island? All of them English, all Protestants. To him, a cold Dutchman who was used to the calm view of the most diverse sects in Holland, the religious struggles and convulsions in England seemed like a heated fever which one could dispense with. And although he spared the high church, which never trusted him, extremely, hers Papism if not turned off, he would have liked to soften it. The Tolerance Act passed except for the poor Socinians; the Comprehensions actaccording to which all relatives of religion tolerated if they had sworn the oath against the papacy for upholding the laws of England, in a Church and state community would not go through. Nor did his more distant endeavors in setting down clergy Congregations for the Unification of the Churches their purpose. The congregations slept; The king grew tired of the contradiction, for a number of years surrendered the whole spiritual field to Queen Mary, his wife, crowned with him, and pursued his art, the war. For the last few years, almost since his stay in England, he has been sick, lonely, angry. In Holland he had been king; He was king in England Governorwho were denied cheap things, even favors. One treachery after another against him came to light: he, who wanted nothing for himself, remained a stranger to the native pride of the British. His wife died (1694), he followed her a few years (1702), and the Tories shouted: "The Dutchman, the dog, the Hogen Mogen is gone! Now the Church has been helped. "

If Wilhelm had little effect on English for a cheaper way of thinking in religious matters, it was enough that he approved of the enlightened, learned, and learned one Tillotson, made his chaplain, first archbishop and peer of the empire, something. The voice of Sancrofts A little disappeared, and almost against will it was also in the high church inner honesty a bit louder. Principles like Cranmer, Chillingworth had long before, the bishops themselves were allowed to Stillingfleet, Hoadly among others, albeit with an almost general contradiction of their status, are finally asserted again; on the other hand those papist presumptions of divine Right of the bishops, even to the tithe, of theirs person adhesive, through dedication inherited upon them from the apostles' times Spiritual gifts (χαρίσμασι), which they communicated or withdrew from others in baptism, confirmation, forgiveness of sins, excommunication etc., presumptions over which a century was held with zeal - against the will of their confessors, the spirit of the coming century gradually chased them into the realm of shadows and dreams .

The old phantoms in the English church still stand as shadow figures (who would deny it?), Fixed in unchangeable, often inexplicable words, wrapped in church decorations and church customs, and what is best. gifted with income. When in 1699 the bishop Burnet published his declaration of the 39 articles of the English Church, it was condemned by the convocation in 1701 for three reasons, because it 1) "permits a variety of opinions, the prevention of which the articles were drawn up" (as if the purpose of the If some and this article, written in such words, would have or could have prevented a difference of opinion!) 2) “Because it contains many passages that support true Sense of articles and others assumed Doctrines of the Church. ”(One of the most respected bishops, certainly a man of sound judgment and correct understanding, had them all in one wrong Sense accepted and signed; how many others this might have met and meet! So didn't they need an explanation? Before which court do you allow a promise of unexplained or inexplicable, or even wrongly accepted articles?) 3) “Because there are some things among them that are for the church of dangerous consequences, including the honor would be detrimental to the Reformation. "(A bishop explained the articles like this, and remained in his office! These dangerous, defamatory declarations were neither reported nor punished.) That was the talk in 1701, and in 1773 one got no further. Nice speeches in the parliament for and against the understatement of the 39 articles were given, translated in the British Theological Magazine, Vol. - H. nevertheless the holy articles, unexplained or inexplicable as they stand, remained in their place. One had signed, one signed and will sign, as long as the English Church is with communicated Gifts of the Spirit since the apostles' times endures.

»«, »No longer bishop, no longer king«. - H. said the small-minded James I, who would rather have been bishop than king, very wrongly. "", One could say more safely, if it were not possible to imagine a very different bishopric among kings. Not only do the wishes of the dissenters, such a large number of valuable people, go there; not only the wishes of the unprincipled clergy who serve the poor, but the situation of the matter demands, the voice of the century calls; you suppress it as long as you like and can.

Almost each History of the Reformation in the and that The country has abominations and annoyances which, according to the spirit of the time and the customs of the countries, they almost had to have; but none is so completely a spot in the modern history of Christianity as that english. Some of their descriptions had to be forgotten until Burnet they (which is why his work was so well received) in one bearable Represented light. Gifts of the Spiritwhich the English Church boasts of, having come down by tradition of consecration Gifts of love (χαρίσματα) it was undoubtedly driven by which Henry VIII, Protector of the Catholic faith, who wrote so vehemently against Luther and who committed himself to the cause of the Pope took so seriously, at once to himself Pope and head of the Church in England, “by virtue of which he made all spiritual matters Listen and decide, Errors, heresies and abuses abolishbut in general all such things, for the execution of which an ecclesiastical reputation would be required, wanted to perform«. The parliament confirmed these advantages and knotted them to the Crown of England. The oath of supremacy (), in which one had to confess "that the king is the highest head of the English church immediately under Almighty God" - H. was introduced and with the final formula: "So help me God and all saints ! «Sealed. Elisabeth became instead of the supreme head of the supreme governor the church;. Everybody had to swear "to protect and defend all jurisdiction, freedoms and privileges, they would like to be whatever they wanted, granted to the king or associated with the imperial crown." the violence that h. Episcopal spirit to dress and undress,. Words of Elisabeth herself. - H. not a little. Under Jacob I. the English Church, what was left of her after confiscated and given away goods, prospered pretty well; the king himself was a Pontiff, a great scribe. The wars with them became all the more violent Dissenterswho have favourited disputes over the divine Right of bishops who Gifts of grace the inauguration and so on, until the terrible unrest arose, under which Charles I lost his life, and Jacob II finally left the empire, with a lackey soul, also in lackey costume. On the throne, however, this papist, like his brother, had the libertine head the English Church, assuming great things; they had dreadfully administered the governorship of the Anglican and Scottish gifts of the Spirit. How one considered it a special fate that Josephus, the Jew, the story of his people in its time told, it's a special gift that Burnet, the bishop, told us the long story of his life in Scotland, England, Holland, etc., broadly and multifaceted, with the credibility of a good honest woman. 1724. 1734 Translated Hamburg 1724. 1735 - H. “The bishop decreed in his last will that this story would not be printed more than six years after his death, and faithfully, without adding, suppressing, or altering anything. "The original has been set forth and shown publicly. One is amazed when one reads the atrocities and rubbish of the. How many noble people suffered under them and patiently endured the yoke! A church built by such means on such a foundation can hardly be sustained on its insecure foundation by any other means than by like means until it comes to an end. As excellent men this church had in learning, in fear of God, dignity and works of love then and now, so much good it here and there does and has done to mankind, even that they want to spread this good through missions to the ends of the world: one Heinrich-Elisabethischer Papism, first set up according to arbitrariness, then gradually patched up to the laws of the empire, not in order, should it endure the truth from which it did not spring, should it be equal to the nation?

What is the church, and what is the head of the church?

1. Is the Church () what it wants to be according to the Apostles' Creed, a general assembly in which a communion between Saints prevails, neither im Vatican still in St. James live their head, since neither of them knows this general invisible assembly, neither has it chosen either of them as their head. Yourself to it createis just as if someone counted the Uranus world () under the title of his possessions. To protect Faith must itself through conviction; a belief that dated Vatican or from St. James from which one must be protected is not apostolic faith.

2. But members of the general Church gather here and there; so here and there becomes a Corinthian, one roman Church. Each differs in language and formulas, in teaching methods and customs; each differ! Didn't Paul preach differently in Athens than he did in Jerusalem? Are not his letters to Asia Minor different from those to Greece and Rome? Every nation Has their own church language and got to They have; an alien, forced upon it, is incomprehensible and inapplicable to it. In Rome it is easy to understand the arrangements of the Roman Church in terms of place and time, since it is difficult to understand them in Stockholm and Pecking. And so serve their God the Anglican and the Gallican, the Spanish and the Germanic Church, each in their Words and signs. He understands all languages; he does not need the old monk's Latin and what is formed from it; just as nations that are not monks do not need it either.

3. “But if now Presbyterian, even Quacker, Anabaptist and so on in the holy church St. Alban's collect? «So much the better! Understand the language St. Alban's and are one with her, they will follow St. Alban's, where not, after of their Serve the Lord wisely. A commanding or, as they are blasphemously called, one ruling Church is a shouting Sound in a damaged organ that always howls forwards and along with them. The Dominant in music it is dominant because it uses different tones holds and wearing. A dominant religion is that most enlightened, the most charitablewho serves all who love all; every clergy that presses and pushes away is despotism. If it even persecutes, the presumptuous servant is the worst thing one can become - in the name of God accuser, witness, judge, bailiff and executioner.

4. “But if my confreres do not in the right way serve the Lord? ”So let them be him Left serve. If he wants to be served differently, the kind gentleman will let them know; You show them how you give him right service. Maybe they take Yours Way on; if not, leave them to them your. you should and want in of their Serve the Lord wisely.

5. “But if they are even in the Teaching term erred? ”So explain them to them, and they will accept your better concepts; if not, leave them theirs. Everyone is as good a master of his words and concepts as he is of his eyes and ears. You mutilate them, you can cut out his tongue, but you cannot tell his ear to do it your way hear, command your tongue, that it is without conviction your way speak from the heart. But what are without heart and conviction spoken Words?

6. "But did the state avail itself of foreign co-religionists instead of ours?" For state affairs? Leave that to him his Danger; in true, multifaceted useful insights is the Country the church, the laity unfortunately hastened ahead of the clergy. He will z. B. not use a sect that allows itself to deceive, hypocritical or other wickedness as religion.He will not make use of a sect that has its head in LassaIn Tibet, where the Dalai Lama is based. - D. has and gets her conviction from there. And certainly he will only tolerate a sect, as in the hospital, under proper medical supervision, which is responsible for the only true and saving keeps that one Monopoly of consecration has a License to forgive sin u. s. w. Call this the English or the Roman Church, it is Papism. We are on our guard against all monopolists. Since your hand is against everyone, keep and keep every hand vigilant against you.

7. “But if a Church would be built that the gates of hell should not overpower, and we would this Church be? ”Alone and exclusive? Forbid heaven! We the only righteous on earth. "And our Clergy this church presented?'He represented you? Righteousness and truth would represented? and by the clergy? “If it were he who, through the laying on of hands, immovably gives us laypeople and himself the gifts of the Spirit notify?"-" Of that, "said the honest bishop Hoadley"I did not feel anything about this during my ordination, nor did I knowingly tell anyone about it during my office."

If a Word has produced among people hatred, persecution, confusion and idleness of thought, silly pride, recklessness and cheeky stupidity, it is the jarring word , Church. If there were a more informal thought than that visible head of an invisible society of mind and heart?

8. “But not the invisible one, the one visible He should be the church head be! ”In what? In cerimonia? On his knees in front of the altar by Lord's Supper. The bitterest disputes have been waged in England over this knees. - H. Unworthy disputes and separations, since many people not kneeling over the Lord's Supper thought far more true and noble than the kneeling herd. How deeply stood a church that argued and persecuted about such things!

9. “But im Teaching term. ”Has any Protestant church Less one Teaching term than that of the 39 articles? This learned bishop asserts that unconditional, that even more learned episcopal conditional Decree of God; this the life-giving Power of the sacramental elements when the latter denies that one certain Grace and power are somehow connected with it. This Athanasian Bishop makes of the Trinity three Gods; there are three Relationships, three Conditions, three Names. To that is the imputation of Adam's sin, the rendering of grace, the means of grace, and so on. the, the other this, if only words, customs, confessions, income, but especially those who and remain.Miracles, prophecies, possessed and Gifts of the Spirit. - H. There is a learned bishop who claims that the soul dies with the body, but also with it alert will; another that by virtue of the planted down Church customs gave the Spirit the power of themselves Immortalization have, without which ecclesiastical gifts and customs human souls would have to remain mortal, and so on. How can a church boast of a fixed doctrine that is unexplained on 39 articles and inexplicable without harm to the Anglican Church and Reformation? Has any state on earth played with commercial vows?

10. For who should explain these articles with authority? The Head of the church? Whether it's through Henry VIII given himself the power "all to hear and listen to spiritual things decide, Errors and heresies abolish, "So it has afterwards graciously to power" to preach and administer the Sacraments " go. So it will be the decision What to preach and What the sacraments may be, the lower congregations of those, who received gifts of the Spirit at consecration, leave; and what these congregations work, the past century is witness to it. Even Germany, who admires it, hardly ever reads the boring British pamphlets which, almost always without knowledge of the source of knowledge, were written about things and nonsense of this kind. A strange standstill in human thought!

11. No standstill. Every child is advanced and calls: »Papism! Papism!"And the sensible one says:" Will Men of the nation, Bishops! now you are Men of tradition, one old papist court. «Not on and and relates bishop (Overseer), but on Mean. Also as Members of the state makes you the choice of a head without limbs, d. i. of a king without a nation, not venerable in both houses, but suspect. Just by choosing your head With you become free in your voices in his limbs; the confidence of the nation responding to proposals from the head To you chose is yours; so are you National Bishops, because otherwise you only have to propagated Spiritual gifts would be. Disputes about the rights of the church and your gifts of grace will thus disappear of their own accord, and the 39 articles will be dealt with without further discussion by fortieth add automatically that the 39 is not averaged consecrated giftsbut by means of the mind sensible, d. i. accept after verified agreement with the word of God and own conviction, otherwise reject it. Immediately you are at one with the fellow believers in your nation; also youwhen chosen by the head and members of the nation can to introduce, what you introduces, Members of the nation, no Papacy of a church.

An honest man, Dean of York, when Henry VIII tried to force a bishopric on him, wrote anxiously:

»The strict Mr. Bellassis.

“Noble Mr. Bellassis. I ask you, for Christ's sake, to use every possible diligence and effort to get the bishopric off my neck. I will never have anything to do with this dignity if I can avoid it. Put whatever you like with my signed name, just not bishop.


low servant

Niklas Wotton

So thought several honest men who did Papism of the high church, the canonical constitution of their courts of justice and the common way of thinking of the episcopal class. Wake up, later Archbishop of Canterbury. dared to write, “that this day only the and keep the bishops from perishing, that they for themselves had no power to harm the Church, and that the King who did it well know a lot too be gracious to ever give them this power allow«. This innocuousness should not depend on the grace of the king, just as a gracious innocence of the bishops does not go far. It is indecent to the teaching of every nation to be a Back building of the courtyard, first of all the cloakroom To be looked at and really to be there, although still quite comfortable at hand. What Wilhelm could not do will be time do: she, the great governor of all estates, she solves and binds.

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