What is liquid butter made of?
Basically, a distinction is made between butter, which is made exclusively from milk cream, and butter, which is produced from a mixture of milk and sirten cream. According to food law, “butter” in Switzerland can be made from milk cream or from a mixture of milk cream and sirten cream. The fat content of "butter" must be at least 82%. If a mixture of milk cream and sirten cream is used, the product may be called "sirten cream butter". If sirten cream butter is produced in a cheese dairy, it can be called "cheese dairy butter".
In the usual butter products, the content of fat-free dry matter is low and averages only 1.2 - 1.5%. If butter from the finishing factory is washed, the content is even well below 1%. From a nutritional point of view, the fat-free dry matter is therefore only of minor importance. However, it can have a strong bacteriological effect. In order to avoid adverse changes in butter products, care must therefore be taken to ensure that the water phase is well distributed, with the droplet size not exceeding 10 micrometers.
In Switzerland, soured butter made from sour cream or made with the NIZO process is particularly popular; 99% of the butter sold is soured butter. The following butter products are on the market:
Preferred butter is an industry name. It is made fresh from milk cream. It can be made from sour cream or from sweet cream with the addition of a natural lactic acid and flavor concentrate. In smaller quantities, preferred butter is also sweet cream butter (salted or unsalted, whereby the salted butter only has a small market share). It is subject to regular quality controls by the butter industry organization. For example, it must have a minimum acidity, the pH may not be more than 5.0. This value applies to acidified butter. The legal value for acidified butter is a pH of 5.5 or less. By law, sweet cream butter must have a pH of at least 6.0.
This butter is produced in cheese factories from a mixture of milk and sirten cream without acidification. The market shares are very small (local sales). It is important that the sirp cream is not acidified so that the copper content in the sirp cream butter can be kept low.
“Die Butter” (formerly also known as cooking butter)
"The butter" is a mixture of milk and sirten cream butter (e.g. 94: 6). Domestic sour butter is used as the milk cream butter. Freshly made butter or lager butter can be used. You can also butter a mixture of milk and sirten cream and shape it directly.
Other names are e.g. boiled butter, pure butter fat, dehydrated butter, anhydrous milk fat and butter oil or ghee. Internationally, the various terms are used in a targeted manner to differentiate between quality. Anhydrous milk fat, also known as AMF (Anhydrous Milk Fat) for short, meets the highest quality standards and consists of 99.9% milk fat. Less stringent requirements apply to butter oil and ghee.
Most of the production is made from butter. For this purpose, the butter is melted, centrifuged to separate the serum phase, extracted with steam and heated to a high temperature under vacuum. If boiled butter is to be used as frying butter, a suitable flavor is created with the help of small buttermilk additives in the final stage of production. The clarified butter can be stored unrefrigerated and can be heated to a high temperature.
Recently, AMF has been made directly from cream. For this purpose, the cream is concentrated and broken up in special separators, after which you can proceed in principle as with butter as the starting product. Instead of steam extraction, ventilation using inert gases, such as. B. nitrogen, can be carried out. This process is often used in vegetable oil production. However, the process has not caught on for milk fat.
Frying butter is therefore practically pure milk fat, made from milk cream butter, as well as from cheese dairy or sirten cream butter.
A fried butter product that is liquid at room temperature. A deep-melting butter fat fraction is obtained by heating, crystallizing and filtering. The separated high-melting fraction is very popular for making puff pastry, e.g. for butter croissants.
Butter with a lower fat content Three-quarter fat butter must have a milk fat content of at least 600 and a maximum of 620 g / kg, semi-fat feed at least 390 and a maximum of 410 g / kg. Semi-fat butter contains an increased proportion of milk protein (3-5%) as well as other substances such as thickeners and emulsifiers. It is usually very easy to paint at refrigerator temperature. Preferred butter is used as the starting product, which is mixed with milk components to the required content. It can also be referred to as “butter, low-fat”, “butter, light” or “butter, light”.
Butter preparations and milk spreads
Mixed products made from butter and other food ingredients. Butter preparations must have a minimum milk fat content of 62%, milk spreads at least 100 g / kg and less than 820 g / kg. Margarines sometimes contain butter to improve their taste and image, e.g. margarine with 21% butter. More details are regulated in the ordinances of the food legislation.
Bakery butter is a high-melting milk fat fraction (stearin fraction) and is produced parallel to frying cream.
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