Can you tell me something about SPIPA?

Grammar, texts, glossary

imb NeusriscL •.grammar





Preface to the first edition. The number of modern Greek books published in our centurygrammaren is by no means small; it stands in a certain proportion to the participation which Europe showed modern Greece in the various decades of our century, and it will be found that in the periods when the Greeks drew the eyes of Europe to themselves in a special degree, the number of grammaren, phrasebooks, elementary books so that z. B. a bookseller statistic an exact gauge for the interest of the West in the Greek people: would be. Even in the past lustrum, this interest seems to have become more intense again, if one believes our yardstick. But in spite of the not inconsiderable production in this field, only a little of it is practically usable, not a single one of the available aids meets requirements, as science does for practical purposesgrammar represents. Sometimes one even has the unpleasant impression of having commissioned work that has only arisen from bookseller speculation. In part, the peculiar literary conditions of Greece are to blame for the lack of really useful aids: it is well known that "Modern Greek" is understood to mean two forms of language, first the lively language spoken by the people, divided into numerous dialects, which actually deserves the name Modern Greek alone, and then the written language, i.e. 'pure language ', which is a literary revival of the more or less modernized ancient Greek common language, i.e. an art product, albeit not of the most recent times, but the result for centuries, even beyond Byzantium-

VIII Extensive use of script: the extent to which one admitted and admitted new elements originating from the language in this frozen ancient Greek language was not only different in different times, but also changed in each case according to the author and subject. Most of the modern Greek grammarThey have the one thing in common that they do not exclusively represent one or the other form of language, but refer to either the written language or the vernacular, but are otherwise not strictly bound by the chosen basis. Those who prefer the written language make up the majority: it is usually taught that way as if it were "the Greek language of today". And yet this written language is not exclusively dominant even in the field of art literature: lyrical and epic poetry belongs predominantly to the folk language, which is also gaining ground in other areas (comedy, narrative literature). A common representation of the two forms of language suffers from the lack of transparency - quite apart from the fact that usually the vernacular is neglected; Mitsotakis2 succeeded in treating both equally: but this author, like all others, lacks the necessary linguistic knowledge Training to meet more stringent requirement to be able to become fair; there is also a lack of insight into the fundamental difference between vernacular and written language: the latter is by no means dealt with in sufficient detail and stands out in its own right grammar to Avenig as an independent language form. The only elementary grammar that has recently appeared which has made the representation of the vernacular language its task is that of Wied ^). The booklet, whose popularity is proven by the rapid appearance of a second edition, is very well recommended to the beginner, as it quickly provides information on the modern Greek vernacular: it will certainly be practical for those who gain a full understanding of the rich folk literature of modern Greece, Mitotakis grammar the modern Greek written and ') colloquial language. Stuttgart and Berlin 1891 (Spemann). XII and 260 pp. (12 marks). See my review in the Deutsche Literaturzeitung 1893, Sp. 235 f. *) Wied "The art of learning the modern Greek vernacular quickly and easily through self-teaching". Vienna, Hartleben Verlag, in the series "Art of the Polyglots", XI. Part (2 marks).

IX or want to get to know the structure of the vernacular, soon let go. What is missing is an aid that provides reliable and reasonably sufficient information on the facts of the modern Greek vernacular, that is not only suitable for introducing every educated person to the rich treasure of modern Greek folk and popular literature, but also serves to turn linguists into philologists with the fundamentals of the to make known the development of modern Greek language. The purpose of my handbook is to provide such an aid. That and why the vernacular, not the written language, has to be taught first, I stated earlier in a special essay i): To repeat it briefly, anyone who knows ancient Greek and learns the modern Greek vernacular has everything what is required to understand the modern Greek literary language; whoever does not know ancient Greek will never gain a clear insight into the linguistic relationships of contemporary Greek literature. Mygrammar is not designed for readers who are completely alien to ancient Greek. Nevertheless, I took the standpoint of modern Greek entirely: a descriptive one grammar - and that should be mine first and foremost - may only consider language in its own light; on the other hand, it is an anachronism that causes distortion, in a modern Greek one grammar z. B. over long and short vowels e and, and, or over the "diphthongs" ai, oi, ei or over spiritus asper, circumflex and acute kegebi, which have no meaning in modern language, but only in writing outward existence grammaren, which I know, are simply worked according to the template of ancient Greek, because the editors, due to a lack of linguistic understanding, did not seem to be aware of the inner contradiction between the ancient Greek orthography and the modern Greek language form. In the area of ​​"phonetic" or rather "letters" teaching, this maladministration occurs on our part grammaren the brightest and most obvious; But also the theory of forms is so much integrated into the pro *) The modern Greek language and its learning. Supplement to the "Allgemeine Zeitung" of August 6, 1891.

The crusty bed of ancient Greek was forced so that its harmony and unity were completely distorted. For example, the declination is treated according to the scheme of the ancient Greek types of declination and the specifically modern Greek is patched on like a random rag. The descriptive one grammar demands, on the other hand, “that similar phenomena must be grouped together. But what is to be regarded as similar is not decided by history or etymology, but by the spirit of language that is active in each case. "I believe that my classification of the modern Greek declination corresponds to this requirement, that it treats that which is treated from a uniform point of view and brings together closely in the gate position of the speaker is arranged in groups and therefore also influenced formally. Deffner's ^) as Psichari's ^) suggestions for a grouping of the declination form seem to me to be less transparent than the classification chosen by me; incidentally, I myself only draw the conclusion from one thought that Meyer -Lübke in his commentary on thegrammar of Simon Portius (p. 125), without pursuing him and carrying out his own classification of the modern Greek noun inflection (p. 118). - One cannot be in doubt about the division of the verbs since Hatzidakis made the structure of the present stems and their relationship to the aorist stem clear in his beautiful essay "On the present tense in modern Greek" *. For people who like to use the word 'practical' around them and consider 'scientific' and 'impractical' to be closely related concepts, not clouded by expert knowledge, it may be noticed that a grouping of linguistic matter abstracted from the internal laws of language makes the learning of a language easier than one grammar, which represents the languages ​​according to a foreign template. That I did not intend an exhaustive representation of the modern Greek linguistic treasure, I need in the ") G. v. d. Gabelentz, Die Sprachwissenschaft (Leipzig 1891) p. 92. *) In the review of Legrands grammar, Jenaer Literatur-Zeitung 1879 p. 392. (Paris 1886). ^) Psichari, Essais de Grammaire historique noogrecque I 88 *) Kuhns Zeitschr. f. compare language f. XXVII p. 69 ff. And introduction to the neo-Greek. grammar (Leipzig 1892) p. 390 ff.

Small size of mine grammar not to be particularly emphasized. Nevertheless, it contains a great deal more than anything else grammaren - if they are larger - contain one, above all grammar The vulgar Greek "". One denies that there is a general and uniform form of the 'vernacular', rather it is asserted that there are only dialects in addition to the archaic written language, but I deny the latter and claim that we are entitled to use To speak a modern Greek "": the language of the folk songs in the form in which they are usually published is not a specific dialect, just as one cannot use the language form of popular poets, e.g. B. Christopulos, Drosinis, Palamas and many others, can name a dialect. A complete unity is of course not yet in place, as is sometimes the case with equals, i.e. H. spatially equally widespread forms occur next to each other, and can also be found in some poems such as B. Vilaras a stronger predominance of the dialect, but nevertheless the 'vernacular' can be contrasted with the dialects. With the wide spread of many folk songs that wander from place to place, dialect peculiarities in them had to be eradicated except for a small best, so that a certain average language gave itself completely by itself. Something similar has recently been said; but he let himself be guided more by instinct than by scientific sense and has therefore overshot the mark by denying the existence of dialects in general. This average vernacular - as it is easily developed especially in larger centers - is a means of communication that is understood not only in Patras, Athens and Constantinople, but also in the country Texts as kichtschnur: rarer or dialect phenomena are generally only treated to the extent that they occur in those. One would therefore not expect that, not to mention tsakonic, the Greek dialects of Lower Italy or those of the Pontes in any way- »),. (Athens 1893) p. 180ff. It was of course easy for Hatzidakis to overturn the "scientific" justification of the assertion, cf. \ 224 ff.

XII were given comprehensively; about the in the TextsI only went out n the dialectic language contained in it when it was a question of linguistic phenomena which, for more general (e.g. linguistic-historical) reasons, are likely to be of particular interest. Of course, such a selection is always to a certain extent subjective, left to personal discretion. I considered it necessary to refer to dialectic phenomena at all, not only to give an approximate idea of ​​dialectal differentiation, but also to really enable the study of folk literature. Incidentally, if I deal with individual linguistic facts, be it in the grammar or in glossary, cite a certain area (e.g. Naxos, Velvendos, Cyprus), I don't mean to say that they only occur in the area mentioned; such information is usually given after the Texts made and mean nothing more than that a phenomenon is spatially limited. As I restricted myself to a selection of facts with regard to the dialects, so did the explanations of the history of language that were given. The main points of the relationship between the modern Greek forms and the ancient Greek Aveveri touched upon: It is more important to sketch the inner context in large outlines, as it is established as the result of modern modern Greek linguistic research, and to guide the reader on the right path than to explain the linguistic phenomena in detail; Anyone who has a linguistic understanding will be able to easily work through some details with the help of my instructions. Above all, I wanted to clearly emphasize the preservation or loss of old types, as well as the emergence of new ones, and furthermore to protect everyone who approaches modern Greek from errors, as they have been overcome in science by Hatzidakis' tireless work, but unfortunately still haunt the minds of unscientific dilettantes . So that my main purpose of providing a textbook of modern Greek vernacular does not suffer, I have avoided citing scientific apparatus (literature, controversies), and reducing the use of linguistic scientific terms (apart from the common grammatical terms) to the smallest possible extent.

set. The beginner will do well to first skip over the phonetic teaching and the notes and go through the inflection of the yerbum before §§ 140-164 [= § 175-212 of the present new edition]. The listed dialectal appearances are best taken from reading theTexts imprinted. Anyone who wants to find out more about the goals, methods and tasks of modern Greek linguistic research should refer to my booklet: 'The Neo-Greek Language' (Freiburg 1892, 36 pages), which is an introduction to the presentgrammar can serve; The older and more recent literature on neo-Greek linguistic research can be found there and in my Keferaten in the Anzeiger der Indogerm. Research, as well as compiled in the first volume of G. Meyer's Modern Greek Studies i). It is almost superfluous to point out how much support my work in the field of modern Greek linguistic research, which has been successfully carried out over the last 15 years, has brought me. And first and foremost it is the work of Hatzidakis, whose fights I hope will come to light in this book. Incidentally, I would also like to thank another aid that has often been a good advisor to me: the comment that W. Meyer (-Lübke) on grammar des SimonPortius wrote 2); This commentary is the only attempt to briefly summarize the results of modern Greek linguistic research. The connection to Simon Portius was a happy thought because of that grammar (17th century!) With a clear understanding of the language with the modern Greekgrammaren of our century can not only compete, but is superior to them in a scientific spirit Texts, on whose need the grammar First and foremost, there is a selection of poetic and prosaic pieces from folk literature and that part of art literature which is based on the vernacular. That the latter is more or less influenced by the written language - *) G. Meyer, Neugriechische Studien. I. Attempt of a bibliography of modern Greek dialect research. Session reports of the Vienna Academy of Sciences. Phil.-hist. Kl.CXXX (189 ^). *) Simon Portius, Grammatica linguae graecae vulgaris. Reproduction de l'edition de 1638, suivie d'un commentaire grammatical ethistorique par Wilhelm Meyer. Avec une introduction de J. Psichari, Paris 1889. Vieweg. LVI and 256 S.

XIV, quickly teaches a comparison between the first and second divisions of the Texts; to elements of the written language which are formally declared as such (and which, incidentally, also in the Textsnot completely missing in the first section), I have in the grammar or in glossary pointed out in order to avoid doubts about what is genuinely popular. Whence mine Texts shows the table of contents; I have included 3 pieces (and a distich) from my own collections; of which I have already published III 4 elsewhere, Id, 7 and III 13 b) are Inedita. Unfortunately, I did not have particularly good, authentic editions at my disposal for the rehearsals of some poets, but this will hardly result in any major disadvantages. In general, I left them Texts in the form as it is in the output templates used; I have changed or added the heading several times. In purely orthographic things that do not affect the pronunciation in any way (especially in the spelling of the vowels) is in the grammar applied orthography performed. In the first department I also have some other changes, i. H. Corrections, e.g. B. with regard to the final v, I am permitted to undertake, in accordance with the grammar to present the regular popular form, but I have exercised a certain degree of restraint in this (e.g. la, 21, where forms such as, come from the church language) TextsIn the art literature Avde became the orthography of the written language in cases Aviest. , KT st. , vh st. , foreign and the like retained if this was the case in my submission: the grammar gives sufficient information about such deviations from vernacular and orthography. By doing Texts of Psichari (IIb, 1), the author's orthography has remained completely unchanged, so that a sample of his orthographic reform proposals is also given at the same time. When choosing the Texts have guided me (apart from the language) literary and cultural-historical points of view, for example in the attempts to create a popular prose or in the plays Avelche give widespread literary motifs in modern Greek guise; B. for the choice of the song by Rangavis (II a, 14), its relationship to the folk song (cf. I a, 4) is determined. The brief biographical data of the poet Averden

XV be welcome for orientation; unfortunately I was unable to find out about them for, or for some of the writers who were still alive. I hope that Texts in the absence of a similar collection, despite their small size, are suitable to introduce the thinking and perception of modern Greeks, especially the "P (Jui") Texts form dialect samples that can give an approximate idea of ​​the variety and diversity of the modern Greek dialects; To make it easier to understand, notes are included here: "Why I did not include the pieces marked in the first part with the place of origin (e.g. from Epirus, Chios, Naxos) under the dialect samples, anyone who knows how unfaithful the recordings of dialectic language texts can understand are: they can usually only be seen as a reproduction of a common language tinged with dialects. In the "dialect samples", however, the aim was to present the local dialect as faithfully as possible, what was in the selected ones Textsnmore or less is the case; the text from Cyprus (III 8) is unfortunately very imprecise: there are very few absolutely reliable modern Greek dialect texts. The second epontic dialect sample (III 13 b) is taken from my own collections, which I brought with me from a long stay in Samsun in the past years and which mainly concern the dialect of a village east of Samsun (Tserakman). In the transcription, however, for the sake of simplicity, a peculiarity of the pronunciation has not been taken into account, namely that the initial tenuis after the preceding nasal is sometimes spoken as toneless media (or fortis); I must reserve the right to discuss this in detail on other occasions glossary is primarily for that Texts furnished, but also includes all in the grammar cited or discussed words: for the beginner it forms a basis for learning vocabulary. A glossary It was necessary to include at all because the only A-dictionary by Kind (Leipzig, Tauchnitz) that is readily available in bookstores is long out of date and no longer sufficient, and because the modern Greek-Fi-French dictionary by Legrand (Paris, Garnier) for mine Texts not enough. Thumb, Neo-Greek. grammar. 2nd ed.

XVI The principles which guided me in orthographic questions are § 3 Anni. briefly indicated. In general I was admittedly based on the principle of historical orthography, i. H. to write according to the origin and nature of the form, but I also occasionally tried to simplify, so as to make a compromise ("") between the orthography required by science and the most common orthography today: today's orthography fluctuates between different spellings (e.g. in the comparative -), I used the spelling required by the history of language with a light heart; on the other hand, of the already usual spellings, I have chosen the one that is best justified in terms of linguistic history. I have avoided unusual spelling, on the other hand, such as st., and in such a case the neutral sign I also did not include, for example, spellings such as -, and the like, which Hatzidakis rightly demands for reasons of linguistic history '), because I wanted to give an orthographic image in a "handbook" that was not too different from general usage. Simplification of the orthography has often been sought: for example, if the ei was carried out through all the fonu, as it is also required by its origin 2), or if (instead of -,) was written in accordance with and. When writing the accents, it was my principle to limit the amvenduug of the Zii-cumflex as much as possible, to write it as a rule only where it is directly equal to the ancient Greek circumflex (); Using a paradigm, I possibly performed the same accent (e.g. -, not) or at least equated it in groups (,) - in the singular, but). To accentuate especially modern Greek forms (such as, or foreign words (|]) according to the rules of ancient Greek I consider it pedantic because it stands in the way of a desirable simplification of the historical orthography. Spellings such as (11) or (13 a) have also been removed because they are evidently made by the editors') S. XVIII (1895) 1 ff . B. J. Schmitt im IV (1893) p. 306.

XVII Can only be used by analogy with ancient Greek; at least I do not know that a distinction is made between and anywhere. In consonantism, I wrote after the pronunciation, e.g. B. actually = or st. and the like, expressly pointed out: the latter was necessary because the existing language and orthographic relationships had to be taken into account and therefore the Texts In this regard, as already noted, often show the spelling of the written language. Incidentally, if, despite careful correction, I am guilty of an orthographic inconsistency here or there, I ask for your indulgence. A list of abbreviations, which, however, are in the grammarwill be easy to understand, one finds before glossary [S. 302]. Finally, let me think of the man with whose name I am publishing my book: the dedication is not only a sign of how much I appreciate the pioneering work of Professor Hatzidakis in the field of modern Greek linguistic research, but at the same time an expression of thanks for those who are friendly Oral and written exchange of ideas often received suggestions and encouragement. I also enjoyed the support of Prof. Hatzidakis for this manual, as he was always ready to give me valuable information and by kindly taking over some of the proof sheets. Freiburg i. B., July 1895.

Foreword to the second edition. In the revision of my book I was allowed to be guided by the same principles that seemed appropriate to me 15 years ago when I first went public with my presentation of the modern Greek language. The plan and layout of the book were generally approved and could therefore remain unchanged; If one critic objected to my classification of the modern Greek declension, while another objected it decisively, then I had no reason to follow the critic. Individual bumps, which the criticism pointed out or which I noticed myself, have of course been removed. But, moreover, the book has experienced an increase in its content, which the future user will certainly be welcome. A brief description of the syntax had been my intention from the start and was only postponed for external reasons; to add it now, I was determined not only by the desire to provide a full insight into the structure of the modern Greek language, but also by considering that with the interest which the Koine studies are currently enjoying, a modern Greek syntax is at least as great a need as Avie the theory of phonetics and forms. For I had often enough observed that the knowledge of modern Greek among philologists who, in their Koine studies, felt the need to take a look at the more recent development of the language, ceased at the limits of my handbook. The fact that the abundant examples of syntactic phenomena can also serve as exercise sentences for the learner is not disadvantageous for practical reasons and, I hope, will increase the usefulness of the book. These examples make it easier for Audi to

XIX understanding of Texts, because they are usually taken from this and only in exceptional cases from other reading or knowledge. When working out the syntactic sections, I naturally had to limit myself to the most important facts and only occasionally referred to dialectic phenomena - for the simple reason that there are hardly any studies on syntactic things. I am fully aware that some of my formulations are only provisional, and one will understand that, with the almost complete lack of preliminary work, my observations and rules do not have the degree of certainty that we can expect in the area of ​​ancient Greek syntax, where the work and experience of centuries can be exploited. But it gave me a special charm to be the first to formulate syntactic rules of the modern Greek vernacular in many cases and thus perhaps to give the impetus for individual searches and comparisons between ancient and modern Greek syntax. Avohl will recognize that historical considerations played a role in my design of the material, and it will therefore not be difficult for those familiar with ancient Greek to understand the effects of two thousand years of further development of the language. Yes, I even believe that conversely the chapter on the modern Greek presentation is more Hellenistic in terms of language history and understanding Texts will be of use, because up to now we know very little about the word order of ancient Greek. Incidentally, I notice that my rules about word order are only derived from the prose texts of folk literature. The other additions to the book are mostly due to the increase in the Texts conditionally. Our knowledge of the modern Greek dialects has been enriched in the course of the last few years by a number of excellent works, and so it seemed to me to be a matter of course, the third section of the,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, date Texts to expand with some good and interesting dialect samples. I have also contributed a few more pieces from my own notes so that my dialectic collections from the islands, the Maina and Asia Minor are not completely wasted (cf. III 3. 5. 13 b. C. 14 a and variant to 15). I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Hen-nProfessor N. G. Politis in Athens for letting me know about some Texts (especially about

XX the two mirologies from the Maina) willingly and thoroughly gave the requested information. I also thought it worthwhile in the first and second divisions to increase the material. Some characteristic pieces of popular literature have been added; The most recent present also had to be taken into account, especially in view of the progress which the struggle for the vernacular has undeniably made since the beginning of our century: after popular prose had initially taken up the field of narrative literature, it is now increasingly taking over the literary essay as well (which, for example, is masterfully cared for by Palamas) and even tries his hand at materials from abstract science; the example of Psichari has worked and continues to work. Whereas in the past newspapers in pure vernacular came in again after a short time, the weekly newspaper "" has now been used for propaganda for the vernacular for a number of years. The reform movement is evidently gaining ground. Indeed, it seems to me that even Hatzidakis, the most weighty opponent of the language "Heretic", had recently shifted his position in favor of a genuinely popular reform of the written language. At least at the end of his "Lectures on the Language Question" (see the bibliographical appendix) he pronounced principles about a contemporary reform of the written language, which the followers of the vernacular must sound like an approval of their intentions. If a Manu Avie Hatzidakis came to meet the reform movement, that would be with Joys to be welcomed. - Unfortunately, I had to leave some wishes that have been expressed to me with regard to a new edition of my book unfulfilled, especially the one after a recording of Solomos' Hymn to Freedom; to only give a few stanzas, as G. Meyer suggested , was reluctant to give it completely, as Ki'umbacher advised (by letter), forbade me to consider the size of the book. Texts from medieval literature or even from the written language. I do not ignore the practical use of such proposals, but I believe that this purpose is better served by special collections. The bibliographic appendix is ​​intended to be a guide to those who

XXI for the problems of the modern Greek language and its historical interests. It lists what seemed to me to be particularly characteristic as an introduction to modern Greek linguistic research and what is able to help bibliographically, i.e. h, to provide guidance on all activities in the field of neo-Greek linguistics. From 1902 onwards the information is relatively more abundant because my reports in the Indo-European research only go up to that point. Works on the Koine are selected according to whether they emphasize the modern Greek point of view. After my book has served the study of modern Greek for fifteen years, I hope that in its new form it will also prove useful to these and related studies. Dr. I have to thank E. Kieckers for the kind assistance he gave me in proofreading. Strasbourg, end of July 1910. Albert Thumb.

Contents.PageY Foreword to the first editionI — XVII Foreword to the second editionXVIII — XXIgrammar 1—196 First part: Phonology 1-26 § 1. Scripture. § 2. Discussion. § 3. Sound system. § 4. Accent mark. Sound change 4-26a. Vowels and diphthongs § 5. Length and brevity. § 6. Internal vowels. § 7. Loss of vowels. § 8. Diphthongs. § 9. 10. i and e in a consonant function. §11. Vowel fusion. §12. Vowels in initial b. Plosives 12 § 13. General. § 14 and. § 15.,, (, vb,). § 16. Less common sound groups. § 17. Palatalization c. Spirants 15 § 18. Transition to Tenues. § 19. fs. § 20.. § 21. § 22. Sounding spirants; Failure. § 23. Insertion of a T. § 24. and before. § 25. h before j. § 26. Hardening of and b. § 27. to ^. § 28. 29. and Z.d. Liquids and nasals 20§ 30. Mouillage. § 31. and p. § 32. Failure of and p. § 33. Nasals. § 34. Final provisions -v.e. Compound and double consonants23§ 35. Compound consonants. § 36. Double consonants. § 37. Consonant connections.f. About the accent 25, § 38. § 39. Enclitics and Proclitics. Second part: The theory of inflection 27-169 Nominal inflection 27-93 Use of the forms 27-37 § 40. Gender and number. § 41. The cases. § 41a Nominal composition. § 42. 43. Use of the nominative,

XXIV page § U-48 of the genitive, § 49-53 of the accusative. § 54. Designation of the dative object. Articles 37-39 § 55. 56. Inflection. § 57. 58. Use. Substantive 39-62 § 59. 60. Classification of modes of declension. I. Masculina 41a. Nom. PI. -Ol 41. § 64. Endings. - Same syllables: § 65..§66.§§ 61. Endings and paradigm. § 62. On individual cases. § 63 Indeclinabilia and history b. Nom. PL - 4367. Single (Gen. S. and PI.). § 68..§ 69 ..— Unequal syllables: § 70.. § 71. -. § 72. 73. Special features of the plural. § 74..§ 75..§ 76. Unequal plural of the paradigm. § 77.. § 78.. Section 79 ... Feminine 49 Section 80. Endings. - Same syllables: § 81.. § 82 accent of Gen. PI. § 83 .. § 84. Gen. PI. (and Sing.). §85. , .§86. §87. - Unequal syllables: § 88. § 89.. § 90. Unequal syllable plural for the paradigm,, .. Neutra 55a. to - (), - (), - 55§ 91. Endings. - Same syllables: § 92.. § 93.-, - and -. - Disparate syllables: § 94. To the paradigm. § 95.,. § 96.,. Section 97. History b. on - 58§ 98. Endings. - Same syllables: § 99.. § 100. Plurals and history. - Unequal syllables: § 101.c. on -, -, - 60 unequal syllables: §102. Endings. §103. ,. § 104 ,. § 105 ... ,,. Adjective 62-75 § 106. 107. General .. Adjectiva on -os 63§ 108.. Section 109 .. Section 109 a. Alt GR. Contraeta.IL Adjectiva on -is 65a. Oxytona (-) 65110.. § 111. Alternation between - and -. § 112..§

XXV side Barytona (-, -) 67§ 113..§ 114..§ 115. Destiny desaltgr. Adjective on -. Komjyaration der Adjedka 68§ 116. Comparative on -. § 117.- to adj. To -. § 118. Irregular formation. § 119. Comparison with. § 120. 'as' and the like Adverhium 71 § 121. Use. § 122. Regular education. § 123. Comparative and superlative. § 124. Adverbs on -. § 125. Adverbial expressions. § 126. Independent adverbs. Numbers 75-79a. Basic numbers (§ 127-129) 75b. Ordinal numbers (§ 130) 77c. Derivations and special applications of numerals 77§131. Fractions. §132. Distributive numbers, 'mal', 'fach'. § 133. Number nouns. Pronouns 79-93a. Personal pronouns 79 § 134.. § 135.. § 136.. § 137. Use of personal pronouns. § 138. Position. § 139. Paragraphs of the personal pronoun b. Keflexivum 83§ 140. Reflexive. § 141 Reciprocal pronouns c. Possessive pronouns (§ 142, 143) ... 83d. Demonstratives 85 § 144 .. § 145 .. § 146. () €. § 147 position; -ha. § 148..e. Relativum (§ 149.150) 88f. Interrogative 89 § 151. § 152..,; G. Indefinita and adjectiva of pronominal nature 90§ 153.,;,. § 154..§155 .. §156., .. § 157.,, and.Prepositions 93-106 § 158. Overview. § 159 Verbal composition. Actual prepositions 94 § 160.. § 161.. § 162.. § 163.. § 164..§ 165 .. § 166.. § 167.,. § 168.,. .

XXVISeiteUnbelievable prepositions 101§ 169. 170. General. § 171. Connected with. § 172. Connected with. § 173. Connected with. § 174. Dialecticals. The verb 106—169 \ ^ orbemerkiingen -. § 175. Connected genus. § 176. Active. § 177. Medium. § 178. Tempora. § 179. Modes. § 180. Type of action. § 181. Verbum. 106infmitum. § 182. 183. Augment. § 184. Reduplication.§ 185 Personal endings. Crabraiich of tenses and modes. . . 113-122 Presence and aorist star at 113§ 186. Indic. Pres. § 187. Type of action. § 188. Imperfectum. § 189. Indic. Aor. § 190. Conj. Pres. And Aor. § 191. Future tense. § 192. Relative time stages. Modes 120.. . 122-144 § 193. 194. Subjunctive. § 195. Imperfect in modal meaning. § 196. Imperative. Stem formation • of the verb § 197. Present and aorist stem. § 198. Overview of the grouping. § 199 Present stems, aorist stem 130a. The active aorist 130 § 200. Principle of education. § 201. The sigmatic aorist. § 202. K-aorist. § 203. Asigmatic aorist forms. § 204. About the historical relationship between the aorist and present stems b. The passive aorist and the formations related to it 137§ 205. The aorist on -. § 206. Aorist with stem extension. § 207. The aorist on -. § 208. History c. The Participium Perfecti Passivi and Related Items141§ 209. General. § 210. Participle to -. § 211. With extension of the stem. § 212. Participle on -flexion of the verb 144-169I. Barytona 144Simple Tenses 144Activum: § 213. Present. § 214. Imperfect tense and aorist. § 215. Subjunctive of asigmat. Aorist. § 216-218. Imperative Passive: § 219. Present tense. § 220. Imperfectum. § 221 Aorist. § 222. Imperative. Compound times 151 § 223. 224. Auxiliary associations and related matters.

XXVIIActivum: § 225, 226. Future tense. § 227. Perfectura and Plusquamperfectum. §228. Future exactum. §229. Use of compound times. § 230 Condicionalis Passive: § 231. Future tense. §232. Perfect, past perfect, and future exactum. § 233. Condicionalis.Page The participles 159 § 234. The forms. § 235. 236. Use. Contraeta 161§ 237. Classification. First class 162Activum: § 238. 239. Present and imperfect tense. § 240. Imperative Passive: §241.242. Present and imperfect tense. § 244. The other forms. §243. Im-Ztoeife Klasse 165Activum: § 245. Present and past tense. § 246. Imperative. Passive: § 247. Present and imperfect tense. § 248. Imperative. § 149. The other forms. § 250. Scope and validity of the first and second class. Halhcontracta (§ 251, 252) 168Third part: Sentence theory 170-196 main clauses 170-176a. according to form and content 170§ 253. Sentences without verbal predicate. § 254 Subjectless sentences. § 255. Questions. § 256. Exclamation sentences. § 257 Interjections b. Combination of sentences 172, § 258. 259. Asyndeüsche sequence. § 260. Coordinating sentence connection (conjunctions). § 261. Use of. Subordinate clauses 176-189 § 262. Preliminary remarks. ,,. §Attribute and noun sentences 176§ 263-265. Relative clauses. § 266-268. Noun sentences with269. Indirect questions. § 270. Indirect speech. Adverbial sentences 182 § ​​271. A. of the place. § 272-275. Temporal clauses. Section 276 Causal Sentences. § 277. Conditional sentences. Section 278. Concessive clauses. Section 279. Consecutive clauses. Section 280. Final sentences. § 281. 282. A. der Manner. Affirmation and negation 189-190 § 283. 'yes' and 'no'. § 284. 'not'. § 285. Reinforcement of the negation. Word position 190-196 § 286. Preliminary remark. § 287. The verb in the two-part sentence, § 288 in the multi-part sentence, § 289 in the subordinate clause.

.XXVIIISeite§ 290. Object. § 291. 292. Adverbial determination. § 293. Adjective. § 294. Attributive Genetic. Section 295. Subordinate clauses. § 296 Artistic Moments.Texts 197-300I. Folk literature 199-233a. A ^ olkslied 199-2171.a. Passow, Popularia Carmina Graeciae recentioris (Leipzig. 1860) No. 197 199b. Passow No. 194.1992. Passow No. 234 1993. Passow No. 54 2014. Passow No. 153 201. 5. Aravantinos, - '(Athens 1880) No. 127 2026..Passow No. 305 2027. Passow No. 409 203..8. . Schmidt, Greek fairy tales, sagas and folk songs (Leipzig 1877) No. 18 2039. Passow No. 426 20410 ... Schmidt No. 15 205. Passow 11th No. 517 20512. ". Passow No. 511 20713..Passow No. 281 208.14. Passow No. 323 20915. Jeannarakis, Kretas Volkslieder (Leipzig1876) No. 174 20916. Passow No. 493 209.17. Aravantinos No. 426 21018. '(Athens 1870 ff.) II p. 445 No. 20 21019. Aravantinos No. 211 21120. .Passow No. 591 21121. "Passow No. 585 21222 ... Kanellakis," (Athens 1890) No. 93 21223.. Aravantinos No. 360 21324. Distichen 213 (1-3. 5—7 September 9, 12, 14-16, 19-24, 27, 28, 32-34, 38, 40, 44, 45, 49, 50 from Passow, 4, 31, 35, 39, 41, 43, 46-48 from Aravantinos, 8. 13. 36 from ^ 40.1257 ff., 18. 26.29 from Jeannarakis, 25. 30. 37 from Kanellakis, 10. 42 from Brighenti, Crestomazia neoellenica [Milan 1908], 17 notes of the author) .b 218-219 (1. 2. 4. 12. 19 from Politis, [Athens 1899 ff.], 6. 8.14. 17. 20 from. 131 ff., 5. 10. 13. 15 from Sanders, Das Volksleben der Neugriechen [ Mannheim 1844],

XXIX page 3. 7. 16 1890, pp. 171, 190, 231, 9. 11. 18 from Jeannarakis) .C. Kätsel 219-220 (1. 2. 6. 7 from.. 193 ff., 3–5 from Kanellakis, 8. 9 from Sanders) .d. Folk tales and legends 220-233. 1. Pio, Contes populaires grecs (Copenhagen, 1876) pp. 16 ff. 220 ,. .'2. P. 26ff 2243. 'p. 34ff. 2274. pp. 13f. . . 229. 5. PioS. 220ff 2306. (Athens 1883 ff.) P. 3 231. Record 7. of the author 2328. PoUtis, (Athens 1904) No. 7 2329. Politis No. 108 233.'10. Pohtis No. 136 233. Art literature 234-272a. Poetry 234-2531. von .- (Athens 1888) p. 6 (and. -, Athens • 1868, p. 16) 2342. von. . (in) p. 58 2353. from the same. Ibid p. 61 2364. Ol "von.). - (in p. 17... 2375. von demleichen. Ibid. P. 88 2376. von." .. (Athens 1901) p. 16 2387. The same. Ibid. P . 18 2398., printed by Legrand, Grammaire grecque modern (Paris 1878) p. 252 2409 ... 'p. 258 24110. of. P. 437 24211. of. ". (Athens 1859) p. 269 24312. of. "... (Athen1884) s! 1 24313. of.'S. 263 24514. of p. 360 24515. of ... - (Athens 1881) III p. 365 245

(AthenXXXSeiteIfi. Of ... 189Ü. P. 105 24817. of (Corfu 1890) P. 274 24818. €€ .... Brighcnti, Crestomazia neoellen. P. 98 24819. of ..Pernot et Legrand, Chrestomathie grecque modern (Paris 1899) p. 98 .... 24920. '1893, p. 33 .... 24921. of. (Athens 1886) p. 139 25122.' of. 1890, II p. 174 25123. of. 1890 , II P. 157 25224. "von, ßrighenti P. 143 25325. von". ", (Athens 1904) P. 56 253b. Prose 254-2721. From Psichari. From: 1888) P. 235 2542. von. 1890 , P. 42.. 256 .. 3. von-1891, p. 9 2584. von. 1893, p. 3 2625. von., '1893, p. 4. 2636.. 13,' ..:, Aus :. (Liverpool 1902) p. 32 2647. von .. From (Athens 1904) 119ff 266 III. Dialect samples 273-3001. From Bova. Morosi, Archivio glottologico itaUano. IV (1878) p. 79 2732. From Cahmera in der Terra d'Otranto. Comparetti, Saggi dei.4. Aegina: ". Thumb, -'IIIdialeiti greci dell'Kalia meridionale (Pisa 1866) pp. 76 ... 2743. From the Maina. Author's note 275a. from Kilta 276b. from 276 (1891) p. 97. 2785. go: -. Author's note 279th, - 7th Karpathüs. (Edited in Constantinople) (1891) p. 276 No. 13 2858. Cyprus. P. 64 No. 19 ... 285II9. Chios:, '. . Pernot, Etudesde linguistique -hellenique. (Paris 1907) 161 ff. 2866. Kalymnos: .. Dielerich, Language and Folk Tradition of the Southern Sporades (Vienna 1908) Sp. 326 .... 284

('., Page 10. Lesbos:'.. Kretschmer, Der heuteigelesbische Dialekt (Vienna 1905) Sp. 544.28811. Velvendos in Macedonia: Oi,., 2. Issue) P. 119 28912. Saranda Klisies in Thrace:. . (Athens 1905) p. 220 29213. From the Pontos: a.XIV (1884) p. 291. 294b. From the Samsun area. (): -, Author's note 295c. From the Tireboli area. : Author's note 29614. Cappadocia: a. Fertek. Author's note. . . 297b. Pharasa. (Athens 1899) p. 137 29815. Tsakonian. Deffner, Archive for Middle and Modern Greek Philology. I (Athens 1880) p. 152. Also variant from Lada imTaygetos (author's note) 299glossary 301—354 Bibliographic appendix 355—359 Corrections 360


^ First part, phonology. § 1. The Greeks use the ancient Greek script and orthography, as it is also common in Greek printing. In addition to the usual forms for writing, they also use other forms that approximate the Latin current script (see table). For the Greek dialects of southern Italy (villages in Terrad'Otranto and near Bova), as well as for Tsakonic (a dialect on the other side of the east of the Peloponnese is spoken between H. Andreas and Lenidi) usually (especially in linguistic works) the Latin transcription is used; The Latin (or phonetic) script is only occasionally used in scientific works on other dialects. § 2. Today's pronunciation of Greek characters and their phonetic description is as follows :() = «. = (French), d. H. labial (more precisely labiodental) sounding spirant: 'I set, lay', '' wet ', stravos' crooked, cross-eyed'.1) = j, d. H. palatal sounding spirant (like German iodine) in front of light vowels (e, e): jeZo 'lache', fehovac jitonas 'neighbors', Jiros 'periphery', pijeno 'go', mdjeras 'cook'. 2) = 3 (in the usual grammaren circumscribed with gh), d. H. guttural sounding spirant (like g in I say individual German dialects, e.g. the Palatinate), before dark vowels («, o, u) and before consonants: (ghala) 'Milch', ^ omdri'Esel ', ^ uruni' Pig ', ^^' love ', Ze'30'sage', epl ^ a 'I went', ^ Lösa 'language', e ^ n'a'Sorge '. Thumb, Neugriech. grammar. 2nd edition 1

see § 29. = t (without aspiration) .about TT and see § 15.b = d (ie), sounding interdental spirant, d. H. like the English so-called 'Aveiche' fh: ibui edo 'here', dondi 'tooth', drömos' way, e = (middle) e.Sti'aße'.l = z, sounding sibilant, like French. or (north) deutschess between vowels (in rose): ^ zuUro 'envy', mazi 'together ,, with'. () = /: minas' month ', sikono' erhebe'.r = ^ [th \ toneless interdental spirant like 'hard' Englishesth: 'died', spipa 'spark'. = i.1) ​​=== Ä ;, d, h. like french. c, qu (in front of dark vowels) and roughly German k in jug (but without a touch), in front of dark A ^ ocal: kciMs' gut ', ikona' image ', akiio' hear '. 2) = k' (Äy), palatal plosive, almost German emk in child ^ but stronger palatal {kj \ before e, i: k'e 'and', sk'ilVSiUiid ', k'imume' sleep ', j; ecf ^ •' ^ 'child'. \ = 1 \ = m \ or mouilliert, see below § 30. \ =] = ks (sometimes gz, about which § 15). = (Middle) o.-n = (without aspiration). = Tip of the tongue (also mouilliert § 30). = S (North German ss), d. H. always' toneless' or 'sharp, also between A'ocals (est' du '). About the pronunciation = i. = / (Labiodental) .1) guttural toneless spirans, as in German ach, yoke, in front of the dark vowels,,? /: 'Lose', 'have', 'they have'. 2) palatale toneless spirans, ', Avie in German I, sting, in front of the light vowels e, i: y (ero' happy me ', may ^ eri'] \ lesser ', y ^ iros' pig ', dx' / 'not' In those cases where one speaks palatally in front of dark vowels, xi is written: e.g. = \ • 'Streu'.

- 3 - = ps (sometimes bz, about which § 15) .uu (uj) = 0 Compound characters: ei, Ol = i: e'x'is 'you have', mira 'fate' .ax ^ e () : vjmo 'go out'. = u: vudi ox '., eu () 1) - =, ev {iv \ d. H. like ate,, in front of resounding sounds: ^ jaw 'stop', avji 'dawn', avrio 'tomorrow', duJevo 'work', zev; i ^ o 'spanneein', ks6vro 'know', ivra 'found'. 2) = / ", ef (,) -or toneless sounds (,,,,, ,, £): aftas 'this', psoftis 'liar'. Spiritus asper (') and lenis ('), as well as the iota subscriptumhaben for the today's pronunciation has no meaning: 'der', i 'die' (plural), ctjos' holy '(a ^^^ ajx)' love ',' etos' year '), dzma' song '. About diphthongs, i, ( ),,, § 8, 9, 28 (17), 35. § 3. The modern Greek vernacular has the following phonetic system (apart from dialects): a) Vowels: (,), e (e,), i (,, rj ,,,), (,,), u () .b) Diphthongs: ai (ai,,), ei (,,,), oj (o'i,,), tii (,); see § 8 .c) Liquidae: r (), (), r '(), /' () .d) Nasals: m (), (), "(, see § 1, 33), mn '()," '() .e) Plosives: k () ¥ (,)

so— 4 —2. Since the modern Greek vernacular is written according to the principles of the ancient Greek orthography, but has undergone an independent development of the sound, it is not always possible to force the modern Greek form into the old orthography: spellings like st. = agr ,, € st. ol (Fem.), ßacist., merely emerged from the endeavor, between the ancient Greek. Orthography and the neo-Greek Form to create an external connection. Other spellings like and the like arose on, € st., the reason for wrong views about the origin of forms. A uniform orthography does not exist at all to this day; even in linguistic circles there are strong contrasts (cf. the orthography of Psichari Texts II b, 1). The principle that one must write a Greek form according to its origin presupposes a correct insight into this origin: z. B. in the case of Nom. Acc. PI. (see § 81 note 1), in the case of the comparatives such as (see § 117) and others. Where the origin is obscure or doubtful, uniformity of the orthography can only be achieved in the conventional way. The same applies to those forms in which the above principle makes two spellings appear to be equal, e.g. B. at) or 'burn'. In many cases (especially when spelling dialect forms) the historical orthography fails at all and auxiliary characters have to be introduced (e.g. i,). § 4. The syllable that carries the tone is given an accent mark (Akut ', for which on the last syllable within the sentence gravis', or circumflex "). These three characters are absolutely equivalent for today's pronunciation; if one or the other is to be put, can only be recognized from the Akzeutlehre in ancient Greek. Here, too, the ancient Greek rules and modern Greek forms often come into conflict: One can argue, for example, whether obitan {e) 'he was' should be written according to the old basic form as () or according to the old rules of accentuation. Sound change, a. Vowels and diphthongs. § 5. Modern Greek distinguishes long and short vowels (in the sense of ancient Greek) not: the vowels are of the same duration if the stress ratios are the same; the stressed vowels, ie the carriers of the word tone, become somewhat l spoken longer than the unstressed, d. H. they roughly correspond to the emphasized brevity of the German, 'law' and () 'shoulder', 'throw' and 'show',

'Wolf and' fate ',' I say 'and ()' am guilty ', further ^' know 'and' believe ',' stone 'and' mother ',' regret 'and' sleep ',' strong 'and' boy ' 'are of equal value in terms of their stressed and unstressed vowels. The difference between length and shortness (,,, e) has therefore disappeared and has given way to another principle (emphasizing the stressed syllable through stronger expiration). The contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables is greater in Northern Greek (see § 7, Note 1) than usual. § 6. Internal \ '"okale. Yor one is unstressed iselten, for which an e usually occurs:' candle ',' dry ' , 'Animal', 'iron', 'pay', (- () ,,) 'worse', 'woman', on the other hand 'butter', 'cheese', 'drawer'. 1. Spellings like are not genuinely popular, so far it is not about the change from unstressed e to i discussed in § 7 note 1. 2. In the Pontic dialect, the agr. is usually represented by e: 'I came' =, 'source' =, 'I =, let' = 'I pierced'. 3. Isolated change from i to e e.g. in Cyprian = -'Weib 'and () = ()' not '(prohibitive) .to in' lie 'next to,' meal 'next to' bridge 'next to,' fill 'next to -, dialect also' blood 'for, instead of the expected i (,,) often in an unstressed syllable:' mustache '(),' trowel '(), and' shave ',' squid ' (), 'Way' (), =, 'praise' (), 'envy' (), {Texts III 12) ^ 'I came' () .4. In some dialects (especially in Tsakonian, and especially in Aegina, Megara and Athens), agr. And oi are usually represented by: B. 'sleep', = 'fig', = 'dog', = 'belly'. Unstressed (agr.) () In the neighborhood of gutturals and labials often becomes ou: 'bell', -'bretzel ',' oar ',' Broth ',' sell ', (and)' tomorrow ',' worm '; also in italy.

'dasbäßa— 6 foreign words: glide', (and) command ',' guilders '.' be-5. The change of a () to changes dialect. Even stressed things are sometimes too, so in the =, which is particularly widespread via the Aegean sea in the verbal exit. - About - see § 213 note 3.6.In addition to the general Greek vowels, the Pontic dialects also have the three umlauts vowels ü, ö, (== «, ö, m); they are mostly the result of a fusion of i -f- «, o, u: = bidßa'go ', =' mice ',: =' melt ', = * (' straw '). - The vowel a (Pontes, Cappadocia) only belongs to Turkish foreign words = () 'cave', (e.g. KaaaX ^ K 'answer'). § 7. An unstressed vowel has dropped out after Xasal or Liquida if the same yokal precedes, e.g. B. 'please' (out), 'leek' (out), 'follow' (out); also the disappearance of the i in 'summit' (out), 'go for a walk' (out), 'garden' (next to), 'last year' (out), 'today' (next to) and so on. The like seems to go back to the same cause (if one assumes older middle forms *, * etc. that have arisen through assimilation). also the -less Imperati \ d [orms etc. § 217. —Of a different kind are (next to) 'I sit down', (next to) 'I rise', (next to 'Grain'. 1. except Attica and Peloponnese), e.g. in Epirus, Thessahen, Macedonia, Thrace, as well as on the northern islands of the Aegean Sea, including the associated coast of Asia Minor and in part of the Pontus area, ie in the so-called "Northern Greek" dialects vocalism is a radical transformation, in the most extreme form of which (e.g. in Velvendos, Lesbos) every unstressed e and become i or u, every unstressed i or u has disappeared or at least significantly reduced: = 'child', = 'approached ', =' took '^' he went ', =' is happy '; =' passes', ^ 'and'. ^ = 'won', ^ 'they gave', = 'advice', = 'grew', -'buy ', =' the word '; (unstressed!) =' how? '. = ();' demanded ', =' he let ', =' he sent ', =' lift up ', = - ( ); = (unstressed!) 'in', {-))

- 7 - 'feared me', = 'that you keep', '' bride ', =' still ', =' lion ', =' fountain ', = (), =' he jumps ', ^ =' that he die '. =' broth ', =' girl ', ^ =' he works ', =' I heard ', =' stop! ', =' above ',' or (Pontes) (Lesbos) = 'his head' The modification of a preceding consonant (§ 2. 30) caused by the i-sound remains, e.g. '= ^,' = ', = or,' = () 'became great', '(Lesbos) =' Shepherd. 'The different accentuation creates differences within a paradigm or tribe, e.g. E.g .: = 'he calls'but = (Aor.), ^' 'Hörnchen' - () 'Hörn'; they can be eliminated by adjustments, e.g. B. jvst. 'They went' to] =, (Kappad.) {€ —.st.'we strayed 'toDue to these changes, the northern Greek forms often take on a strange appearance, especially if the confronting consonants also suffer changes (see § 37 note). 2. The change in sound opposite to the failure, spontaneous development of a vowel between consonants. B. inside 'shiny', = ,, less often 'mortar',% =, '=, (Crete) =' thank you '. From Velvendos cf. '' =, =, from Lesbosaber also - (^^ = and the like with syllable, .aus (but =); from), (i.e. § 8. Diphthongs arise in modern Greek by moving together originally separated vowels: ist award aidöni 'nightingale', kaimdnos 'unhappy', leimosini 'alms', and similarly ßoibi (next to,) 'ox', () 'clock', () 'page'. This also includes § 239 and 252 verbal forms, etc., , ,,. An e-sound connects with the preceding vowel to diphthong in (= agr.) 'Eagle'. The diphthongs in (or) 'donkey', (or) 'singe' (from birds), - (or) 'caress'. Finally, there are diphthons in words of foreign origin: 'Band, Schnur', 'Barkenführer', 'Limone', 'Affe', 'Thee'. 1. 0- and e-sounds can also have the consonantic part of a diphthong, e.g. in 'I go' {Texts 9

2. A special type of diphthong can be found in the southern Maina (cf. Texts III 3): a usually consonant 2-sound (§ 9) occurs through umlaut (epenthesis) in the preceding syllable and connects with its vowel, e.g. B. = = eyes ', ßmlei = ßdlei'er =, lays', = 'apron', 'pretzels', ^ = 'he went', {peidd) = 'children', £ {and) = 'nine', even = 'snakes'. The phonetic law also works between closely related words such as = 'that I improve'. § 9. Every i- and e-sound that collides within a word with a darker a ^ ocally following it loses its syllable value and becomes consonant (i.e. to an iodine One can denote the consonant AVert of an i (i,,, ei,) by a subordinate ^ or _ (i,,, ei, or,,, ei,), or also by, etc., but this is not absolutely necessary, since the consonant pronunciation in the pure A'olk language is the rule. So z. B. ßpabyaZiei (or ßpabyaiei) iradjazi * it is evening ', () omjazo' same ',' whoever ', ()' judge me ', ()' do ',' poverty ',' silver ',' straight ', 'Leo' (off), () 'gender', 'old' (off), 'very beautiful' (). Such an i is fused with the preceding one to form a sound {j): ajos 'holy', vaja 'nurse', i) lajazo 'gehesclilafen', () jor ^ os 'farmer'. The iodine is usually written initially, (or) : = '' Johann ',' doctor '(),' glass '(*),' son '('), 'festival' (). In dialect, an i- {e-) sound, =, ^ = (Chios). Which only secondarily came together with a following vowel due to the disappearance of a consonant, can also become consonantic, e.g. B. (go), The y is also not protected by the tone A; the accent Avird shifted: 'incessantly', 'I built', 'grasp', 'I try', 'chat', 'dissolve,' forms like,, are not really popular. All Awords with an originally stressed / or preceded by the vowels forming the final syllable, the rule of final stress: Fem. too 'heavy' to get in

Plur. To 'Kiud', Geu. to 'hand', 'I will drink' (); 'Church', 'heart', 'look' and numerous other feminines on -; 'school', 'kitchen, cooking', 'village,' which one? ',' Olive tree ',' apple tree 'and others. Tree or plant names (which originally ended in -), 'King' (), 'old woman' (), 'young' (), 'Jude' (), 'more' (). The withdrawal of the accent in ' Illness', 'weakness',' advice ',' commodity ',' poverty 'and the like are caused by the analogy of nouns such as,. § 10. An exception to the rule given in § 9 are only words that are from the written language or from are borrowed from the Italian: B. 'Harmony', (at Rigas, but Texts la, 1), 'Kingdom', 'Book', 'Funny', 'Opportunity', 'Comedy', 'Hospital', 'Literature', 'Friendship' (Velvendos), (next to) 'Fortune' Texts 5); 'old, antique', 'new' ('young'), 'flag', 'beautiful'; Italian foreign words: z. B. 'a kind of cyper wine' [Commendaria), it. birraria 'Bierwirtschaft', speceria 'Apotheke', 'Art Schiff u. the like m.1. The older forms on -, -ia etc. have been preserved unchanged in a number of dialects (old town of Athens, Aegina, Kyme on Evia, western Maina, southern Italy, Gortynia in the Peloponnese, Tsakonia, Pontos, Cappadocia); also iraibia plur. from 'child', gen. from 'palace', 'heart', (cap.) 'darkness',' light ',' which one? ',' king ',' axlash ',' olive tree ',' Apple tree ',' more 'etc.) comes from the church language. 2. The i (e) usually stays after the conson. - | - p, e.g. B. 'cold', 'meat' (but), (next to) 'three'; (In addition to 3. In some northern Greek dialects -la and - (semi-vowel i and e, not iodine) are still differentiated in the pronunciation: so, but .4. In some dialects (e.g. in the area of ​​the Aegean Sea and in eastern Crete) disappears after a (S,.): 'Insel', st. '200', st. '300' _ = {f.), 'rich'. In general, there is loss of the and the following words'): 'silent' (from), 'chin' (). St. aSiaFem. 'good', st. PI. from 'piasters', st. PI. from *) Pontic ä, ö from la, lo see § 6 note 6.

vä— 10 - 'Saliva' (\ 'Stroli' (), as well as () 'Woman' (); 'consider' (), 'debt' () .5. In some dialects the spiritual iodine has become or () :.. (Velv.) =, '' ^, (Crete) = ^; on some islands (.. Kalymnos, Skyros, Nisyros) there arises one or after toneless, or one or l (i) after sounding consonant, e.g. . = 'Brothers', =, aipZa = ^' hands',: = 'games'; =' grasp ', = =.' Ships', a hardening to 'occurs after,, in Velvendos:' =, '= etc .; also note from Chios {Texts III 9) Forms like p ^ oUerak = 'more',? / Jjj .a «e» = 'he grasped', rf ^ 'o =' two ', uudg'a = ßoubia' cattle '. In the Cypriot dialect, finally (and dialects closely related to it), everything (except after sibilants, where it disappears) becomes or Aiss: ^ =, = - 'doves', =, (and), = 'truth', =, from = 'Cards'. § 11. When a final and the following initial vowel coincide, a fusion occurs: -a + -, resp. o-, w-, e-, i- to-0 + 0-, u-, e-, i- to-u + u- ^ e-, i- to ue + e-, i- to ei + / - to i; resp. in reverse order, d. H. -o, -?

- 11 - 'and he', and also loses its vowel before the following i: '' unddann '. The words' me ',' you 'usually lose their e before i:' 'you saw me', while the other way round the article 'holds' :()' the mother came '. 3. The contractions of internal vowels generally follow the same laws as in verbal compound, e.g. B. () off, off, off, off - (), off () etc., 'tomorrow' off *) d. i ,. (Also pontic =.) § 12. The vowel-unstressed initial sound suffers manifold changes. Waste ('aphaeresis') especially an i and e, more rarely a or a: z. B. () 'abbot', () 'health', () 'day', (agr.) 'Halfway', (agr.) 'I'm going', (agr.) 'Up'; 'and' I ',' and 'here', () 'find', and 'there', and 'that', (next to) 'I can', and 'I ask', () 'Evening', () 'thank you', () 'goat', () 'make bloody'; 'not' (off), pontic '' not '(off); () 'little', () 'eye', () 'speak', () 'house', (agr, (wt.)) 'fish'; 'love', (won ..) 'from a distance' ,, () 'die', 'Velv. = weight 'Ohr', (cap.) - (Aegina) 'Hahn'. The fall can also occur if the vowel has only become secondary through the disappearance of a consonant, e.g. B, (cap.) = 'Woman' (cf. § 22) b. Addition ('prosthesis') usually one, less often another A ^ ocals: and' cloud ', and ()' side ', and' breast ', and' lip ', -'blutegel' (), and 'secret' (adv .), and 'expect', and 'go by *, and' forget '{elimonizo in TerradOtranto), (Pontos) =' believe '; 'you' (), and (), pontic 'then', and 'this' (on and etc. see § 182 note 2); (dialect Hch and) 'shadow' c. Exchange of the initial vowel with another; especially e, i is often used by or o, mostly by

- 12 -) sets, on the other hand seldom by another a'okal: (agr. ())) 'Entrails', 'light', (2-'cousin', (, 'above', (Pontos) = 'there' , (=,), also in Pontos, and (agr.) 'footprint', ()) 'patience'; (also) 'beautiful', (or 'enemy', () 'advice', () 'hope' , = 'I'; = certain () 'own', (certain or) 'behind'; () 'orphan', (, from) 'polyp', next to (see above) also; 'usually' whole '; (Chios, Naxos, Crete, Ionian Islands) =' this'. The forms of the initials change in various ways in the various dialects; they are mostly due to the fact that close word combinations come about according to § 11, especially of Article 4 nouns or, + verb, are wrongly broken down by the sense of language, e.g. in), (st. in '), ( (st.b. plosives. § 13. The tenues,, are generally not subject to change. In some cases they have arisen from spirants (see § 18). On the other hand, two unexceptional phonetic laws have reduced the number of tenues: § 14. 1) The sound groups and became and: (ancient Greek) to: 'sneeze' (agr. ), 'Wing' (), 'arm' (); 'esblitzt' (), 'seven' (), 'thief' (), 'falle' (). (agr.) to: 'build' (), 'strike' (); () 'open', 'finger '(),' show '(to),' network '(),' night '(vuS),' eight '(),' fixed '(). 1. The sound groups do not appear anywhere in a modern word today. Something else is' = and the like; (but even in this case it is often spoken ', also, for example,' from kop [8) to § 37 TextsIn the vernacular the spelling, instead of 'mirror', st. 'Strahl' and the like), it is a historical orthography belonging to the written language: the pronunciation is,.

- 13-2. In southern Italy. Are Greek and in (Otranto), resp. (Bova) collapsed: mfta (but ^ petta - '!) Esfci = ^, m'sta =. § 15. 2) The tenues become mediae after nasals, i.e. i.e., VT, are pronounced like mb, nd ^ wg {w = mj in German angel): ardgaVazo 'embrace', primgipas 'prince' (Latin princeps) ^ lambo 'light', andama 'at the same time'. The same groups of sounds arise when the nasal and (agr.) Ss, T, b collide:, and vb are therefore (with preservation of the agr. Media) pronounced as mb ^ wg ^ nd, for which apart from better, one writes: 'swim' (agr .), ^ ewgizo 'touch', bevTpodendro 'tree' (bevbpov) .endeka 'elf (evbeKa), 1. Spellings such as, bevbpov come from the written language and can be misunderstood. If the phonetic groups, (), start to Averden by falling off a vowel, they become almost like pure sounding media, H. like North German or Romance b, g. pronounced d (more precisely like »», '' ^ g, "c? with reduced nasal): e.g. into ', ()' grandchildren ',;' sink into an abyss' 'pull me forward' (), () 'go (* []), ()' shame ', to' (from vbvo). The conversion of the tenues in media after the preceding nasal also happens in the verbal combination: the final-V is combined with the initial (), () , () one of the following yortes to mb {mbz \ idg {idgz \ nd (ndz): = tombatem 'the father', tombzefti 'denLüner', tindzepi (Acc.) 'the bag', tmgurazo 'I tire you', bv deidgzero 'I don't know', bv dembzifa 'I don't pay attention', andombaris 'if you get him'; remark from Chios {Texts TU 9) (b) v (b) ven ierd gani 'he saw none', (b) v ^ en irkutoni ^. 'he did not come any more', (=) ifien dzinos * that one fled '. In contrast, initial ß,, b and J always remain spirants: (), (), () bl, () (cf. § 33 note 3). 2. In some places (.. On some of the Cyclades, on Lesbos, cf. also Texts III 12) have become pure media, both initially and inwardly: 'Grandmother' to babuj, ()

der - u -'ich can "to (ejbonj. 'moon' to cpegdpi, bovxi 'tooth' to dodi, 'near' to

() - 15 - = ear ',' = 'eye', ^ '=' handkerchief '; in tsakonic also goes before i in, e.g. B. hisu = 'back' 3. On Crete (and some other islands in the Aegean Sea), before becomes spirant: =, =, =. Correspondingly to: = 'against', = 'the noble ones'. Cf. also mdddia = Terra d'Otr.4 ". In the Pontos the initial group becomes (): = 'Ashes'. = 'Im' § 17. Widely used (but only in dialects) is the palatalization of one before e and i {j \ ke ki in ce ci, ce ci or ce ci (respectively) .dh the Vandel from This transition can be found in Pontos, in Cappadocia, Cyprus, Crete, on many islands of the Aegean Sea (e.g. Lesbos, Araorgos, Thera , Naxos, Syra, Kalymnos, Chios), in the dialect of the old town of Athens, in Megara, on Aegina, in Kyme on Evia, in many areas of the Peloponnese (also in Tsakonia and in the Maina), in Lokris, atolls, southern Italy: so e.g. = 'head, () =' and ', =' time ', =' candle ', = ()' woman ', () =' there ', =' lying ', =' wave ', ( Maina) = 'Sunday', () = 'red', == 'bean', (Aegina) 3rd person Sing, zu'ich heard ', = ()' split '. In (Chios) =' sleep ' , = 'Belly', = 'bendemich', = 'dog' etc. (.. In Aegina) the occurrence of the sound change in front of u is only apparent, since this u emerged from an older i-like sound continue to become (or), cf. B. 'he finds' (Chios, Kalymnos and others); see § 28 Note c. Media g (,) is subject to the same change: d. i.dndzelos = 'angel', = 'hoe', (los) = 'relative', resp. dz, i.e. a.vdzeo etc. (in Kos also 'etc.). In Cappadocia (Pharasa), dz, z. B. ^; = Spirants. § 18. The spirants,, have the tendency to change into tenues (,,) after the preceding one (or after another voiceless spirant). This is most regularly expressed in the case that after each,, becomes: 'feel' (out), aor. Passport. 'I was laughed at', 'it was wiped out', (from, -but ... 'I was honored'), 'en'eiche' 'it was (from), ()' free '(from), written', 'Enemy' (out), 'guarded me'.

= - 16-1. The spelling with (iXeOGepoc, ^ etc. is historical, i.e.has no meaning for the pronunciation. Likewise gradually becomes aiicli after f zuk: 'ugly * (), ()' musk, perfume ', ()' column ', (from' rope ',' school ': () 'Thank you', () 'praise micli'. () 'pray', () 'prayer'.2. The same applies to the spelling (,) as to .3. The transition from in is fairly widespread (especially in the East of the Greek language area): often 'I came' =, 'straight' =; less often it becomes (.. in Cyprus *), Rhodes, Kalymnos, Samos, Chios): 'I come', = 'beginning'. will only in individual dialects after. 'close' =, = 'slaughter', = 4. So in the Pontic, in Kyzikos and on Ikaros, z. B.,; only 'press', = 'sling' 5. The differences (and the like) caused by the agr. ('listen (agr.) to' draw on: cf. § 205 I, 3 note 3 and § 207. § 19. The sound group fs (often for & s, vs) regularly changes from ^, to ps (): ( Aor. From 'work') becomes auf) zu, (() 'cry') to and the like (cf. the aorist formation § 201 I, 1), also 'great heat' (). See also = () 'sit down' and (Turkish) from () 'garden'. 1. In southern Italy (Terra dOtranto) the opposite development has taken place: it has become fs, e.g. B. afsiU = 'high', 2. The form (see § 136 note 3) did not emerge from the more common aftos through the failure of the f, but corresponds to an already old gr. Form.:, Ij 20. is sometimes to 'saddened', 'saddened' (next to etc.), 'crib' (from); na Mdfso = (to).) 'JExactly r ^.

- 17 - it has become in 'innumerable' (= -), (from) 'Richtschnur'. 1. In the dialect of Terra d'Otranto, the initials become t, and the internal (between vowels) become s: telo = 'I want', tanato = death ', lisari =' stone ', pesamino ==' died '. Imanatolian Greek is also spoken st. (cf. st.Texts III 13 c and st. Texts III 14 a). st. is in particular the peculiarity of tsakonic, e.g. B. = 'summer', silica: = 'female' 2. Occasionally at (Velvendos), (Pontos), (Chios) = wt. , also (Cyprus) = 0ev (v) a (particles to form the future tense). § 21. X before e and i becomes S () or also s () in Tsakonian, on Cyprus, in southwest Asia Minor, on some islands of the Aegean Sea (e.g. Crete, Amorgos, Kos, Kalymnos, Astypalaia), in the Pontic (as well as in Cappadocian) dialects: aepi = 'hand', = -'winter ', =' you have ', =' you have '; sometimes (e.g. on Kalymnos) goes on into,,: = 'not', = 'nails. Claws'. In Bova, instead of k [kh-) which is aspirated before dark sounds, h (/ r) is spoken before light sounds; h = x is occasionally found elsewhere too. § 22. Of the sounding spirants (ß b), the tendency to fade between yowels, but also in the initial voice, is very widespread: there is a drop out of intervowel (3 and j) in the most varied of regions (inEpirus, in the Peloponnese, in Macedonia, on the islands as far as Cyprus and in Asia Minor), e.g. B. and 'say' (Imperf.ekea and), () 'go', () Aor. () 'Eat', () 'calculate', () 'beliüte', () 'clock', () ' Arrow ', ()' eat ', ()' think about ', ()' sea ', () ()' little ', ()' big ', ()' love ', ()' I '; = (Naxos), = 'looking for', = 'woman'. Most often the `` inherit '' is missing in the first listed. The sound group () is to a uniform sound, ^ ', gCAvorden (= before e, i). Mau therefore uses this symbol to express a y in front of dark yowels: = 'fill', = 'meal', =, turk. jara 'wound'; See also § 9. Failure of is usually in = 'devil'. The regular failure not only of desb (seldom desb) is particularly a peculiarity of south-east Greek dialects, i.e. H. from Cyprus, Rhodes, Kalymnos and neighboring islands, without, however, being restricted to these dialects: ^ Thumb, Modern Greek. grammar. 2nd ed. 2 and% "

- 18 -) 'fear', = 'cancer', € () 'garden', = abep-'brother', () 'donkey', (b) m (b) eKa 'the twelve, ()' hope ' , = 'Foot', = 'that I give', e (v) = bev'not '. See also and § 20 Note 2. In Terra dOtranto, the loss of intervowel (and initial) consonants spreads even further (e.g. toa =, ijoa =;, j =, (); steo = ^) Chios is found next to total failure also a mere reduction of the, and b, z. B. vä'zu 'I laugh', '' 'the king', (i. ') Oubi' ox ', ^' 'horse manure', '^' donkey 'and others. Texts III 9.ij 23. Conversely, a is inserted between A'Okalen, z. B. () 'Air' (Chios), € () 'God', () * hear ', ()' burn ', ()' cry ',' am to blame ';' boy 'is quite common (to agr This phenomenon can be found all over the mainland, on the Jonian islands, as well as on the Cyclades including Crete, Chios and Lesbos. Almost in the whole area of ​​the Aegean Sea, as well as on Crete and Cyprus, a vowel is also inserted between and =: 'believe ',' dance ',' cut ',' sew ',' rub ',' Friday ',' Gospel '. The Verbaauf - are in the Terra d'Otranto on -eo {pistio 'believe'), in Bovaaxii-iguo ​​{plateguo 'speak'), in Tsakonian on -Siagu {dxiUwgu 'work') : ==, 'blood', = 'empty', = 'same, same'; see especially Texts 11112 (=, = u. \ A.). Often develops in the words = 'cloud', = 'worry', = 'against', = 'torment'. § 24. and (,) regularly fade away: 'Gold' (from), 'Packsattel' (from), (from) 'thing'; 'in love' (to 'wonder', 'wonder me' (from,), (from) to 'braid', to 'drown', etc. in the dialects, which however have real double consonants (§ 36 note), in this case only one is spoken (in Chios, of course). The spellings ,, originate from) etc. the written language, provided it is not - dialects of the mainland. 2. In front of you just disappears in 'I know' next to; otherwise it remains: 'Flour', () 'find', 'black' 'burned' (from to, 'charmed' (to),:, 'Bach' (from) .1. You usually write two