Is Gujarat overrated by Modi

dish

REASONS FOR DECISION:

I. Procedure:

1. The applicant, who was a minor at the time, an Indian citizen from the federal state XXXX, entered the Austrian federal territory irregularly and on December 28, 2012 submitted the application for international protection within the meaning of Section 2, Paragraph 1, Item 13 of the Asylum Act (in Follow AsylG).

A EURODAC query dated December 28, 2012 did not reveal any agreement regarding the complainant's identification data.

On the occasion of his first written questionnaire in the presence of a legal advisor on December 28, 2012, before the public security service of the Traiskirchen Police Inspection / First Reception Center East (of the Federal Asylum Office at that time), the complainant put the personal details in the verdict on record that he was single, he had one in addition to his parents Brother in the country of origin and attended elementary school in XXXX from 2000 to 2010. He has no family members either in Austria or in any other EU country. His passport was taken from him by the smuggler.

With regard to his travel route, the complainant alleged that his family had taken the decision in March 2012 that he should leave his home country. He started his travel movement from XXXX and left his home country for XXXX on April 10, 2012 by plane. He was housed in a smugglers' quarters in XXXX for two to three months. As a result, they drove by car, truck and train across unknown locations to XXXX. The trip was organized by a tug.

When asked about the reasons for his flight from his home country, the complainant stated that on March 31, 2012 there had been a "march" in which his brother had been involved. The police then carried out checks and arrests, but his brother managed to evade them. However, the police have been looking for him since then. He and his father were regularly questioned about the brother's whereabouts. It is for this reason that the complainant left the country. From the beginning (after April 4th, 2012) to the end of April (April 25th, 2012) he was with a friend in XXXX, who had helped him with the departure.

After allowing his proceedings, the complainant essentially put the following for the record in the course of his questioning before the Federal Office for Immigration and Asylum on January 13, 2016, branch office in Traiskirchen:

At the beginning, the complainant confirmed that he felt physically and mentally capable of carrying out the survey, that he was healthy and that he could communicate with the interpreter who was present without any problems.

When asked to provide a short résumé, the applicant submitted that he was born on XXXX in District XXXX, Province XXXX. He lived with his parents and brother in the village of Padas and ran a farm. Until he left the country in 2012, he attended school in India. Before entering Austria, he was in XXXX from March to December 2012. Austria was not his target country, as only Europe in general had been agreed with the tugboat. Most of his relatives still live in India, but he no longer has any contact with his family members.

When asked what prompted the complainant to leave his home country and asked to describe the reasons for this as concretely and in as much detail as possible, the complainant stated that a demonstration for an imprisoned Sikh had taken place on March 31, 2012. The participants demonstrated for the release of that man, and the applicant's brother also took part in the rally. However, because of his participation in the demonstration, his brother was harassed by the police and he then left his home. Since the police were looking for his brother in his parents' house, his father and the applicant himself were often questioned and arrested by the police. Due to the events, his family advised the applicant to leave his home as well and sent him to his friend in XXXX. During his stay in XXXX, his family hired someone to issue the complainant with a passport and to take him abroad.

Before this point in time, the complainant had never had any problems with the authorities in his country or had been politically active. After the demonstration, however, he was taken to the XXXX city prison for two days. His family had paid bail for his release, bought him three days after he was arrested again and sent him to XXXX.

In the event of his return, he feared that the police would arrest him again, even though he did not take part in the march himself.

The demonstrations were organized in various cities against the government, as the Sikh XXXX has been innocently in prison for a long time. There are also other Sikhs in Punjab who have served their sentences but have not been released. Although the demonstration was peaceful, the police beat the participants with pieces of wood. Because of the brother's participation in XXXX, the complainant and his family were harassed by the police. His brother had already been arrested before he fled, and he and his father had also been arrested.

The complainant had not been in contact with his brother since March 2012, but he had called his family in April and told his father that he had been released through the support of someone, that he had a place of residence and that the police should not be informed of his whereabouts. Indian police are said to be arbitrarily arresting Sikhs in order to extort money from them. A Sikh had already been killed by her in the course of a demonstration.

Upon further questioning, the complainant took the view that the police had also found him in XXXX and in every other part of India, although there was no registration system in India. He did not stay in XXXX because Europe had been agreed with a smuggler and no Indians would live in XXXX. He has been a self-employed market driver in Austria since 2015 and has friends and a girlfriend with whom he does not live together.

The complainant stated that he had no objection to further investigations in India but did not want to return to his home state. After the official state determinations on India, he was informed about the possibility of submitting a statement, but refused to do so.

2. With the decision of January 22, 2016, Zl. 821880701-1601266, which is the subject of the proceedings, the Federal Office for Immigration and Asylum rejected the applicant's application for international protection in accordance with Section 3 (1) in conjunction with Section 2 (1) (13) AsylG with regard to the award the status of the person entitled to asylum (ruling point I.) and in accordance with Section 8 (1) in conjunction with Section 2 (1) no.13 AsylG with regard to the granting of the status of beneficiary of subsidiary protection with regard to the country of origin India (ruling point II.), a residence title from worthy of consideration Reasons according to §§ 57 and 55 AsylG were not given, according to § 10 Abs. 1 Z 3 AsylG in conjunction with § 9 BFA-VG a return decision was issued against the complainant according to § 52 Abs. 2 Z 2 FPG as well as § 52 Abs. 9 FPG determined that his deportation to India is permissible according to § 46 FPG (point III.). According to § 55 Paragraphs 1 to 3 FPG, it was stated that the period for his voluntary departure is two weeks after the return decision becomes final (point IV.).

In the reasons for the decision, the Federal Office for Immigration and Asylum stated that the applicant's identity had not been established due to the lack of identity documents. The statements on the reasons for his departure had not proven to be credible and it could not have been established that the complainant would be exposed to a dangerous situation if he returned.

With regard to the general situation in India, the following statements were made in the contested decision:

1. Political situation

With over 1.2 billion people, India is the most populous democratic state in the world (CIA Factbook June 22, 2014 cf. AA March 3, 2014). With its many languages, India is particularly diverse, which is also reflected in its federal political system, in which power is shared by the central government and the states (BBC May 16, 2014). As of June 2, 2014, India has 29 federal states and seven union states (CIA Factbook June 22, 2014 see also AA 3 March 2014). According to the constitution, it is a secular, democratic and federal republic. The capital New Delhi has a special legal status. The central government has significantly greater powers than the state governments and, in the event of internal problems, can place a state under direct central government administration for a limited period of time (AA 5.2014).

After independence from Great Britain (1947), India enforced the principle of the separation of powers between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. The decisions of the state administration (bureaucracy, military, police) are also controlled by the country's free press, which is published not only in the national official languages ​​Hindi and English, but also in many of the regional languages. India also has a lively civil society that is involved in shaping politics with a variety of initiatives (AA 5.2014). President Pranab Kumar Mukherjee has been Indian head of state since July 2012 (AA 5/2014). The President is the head of state and is elected by an electoral committee, while the Prime Minister is the head of government (USDOS 02/27/2014). The office primarily entails representative tasks, but in the event of a crisis the president has far-reaching powers (AA 5/2014). The most important office within the executive branch is held by the prime minister, who has been called Narendra Modi since 26 May 2014 (GIZ 5/2014).

In accordance with the constitution, the states and union territories have a high degree of autonomy and have primary responsibility for law and order (USDOS 2/27/2014). The legislature consists of a People's Chamber (Lok Sabha) and a Chamber of States (Rajya Sabha). There are also state-level parliaments. The Supreme Court in New Delhi is at the head of the judiciary (GlZ 11.2015; see AA April 24, 2015).

The separation of powers between parliament and government follows the British model. India has a constitutionally guaranteed, independent judiciary with three levels of authority. (AA April 24, 2015).

In the last few decades India experienced an enormous economic boom, which led to the formation of a new middle class. But India's age-old caste system, ailing rural infrastructure, severe environmental pollution and religious conflicts between Hindus and Muslims continue to pose major problems for the country (FAZ May 16, 2014). The new government, which has been in office since 2014, not only wants to continue the market economy course, but also to intensify it by removing bureaucratic obstacles and reducing protectionism. Foreign investors should become more active. (GlZ 8.2015).

The last nationwide elections took place in April / May 2014 (AA April 24, 2015). The election for the 16th Lok Sabha, the Indian lower house (GlZ 11.2015), began on April 7th, 2014. 814 million voters were called upon to cast their votes at more than 930,000 ballot boxes and 1.5 million electronic voting machines (Eurasisches Magazin May 24, 2014), including around 120 million first-time voters (GlZ 11.2015).

Three major party alliances faced each other in the election:

The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) under the leadership of the Congress Party, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) under the leadership of the BJP and the so-called Third Front, which consists of eleven regional and left-wing parties. The performance of the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP), which emerged from part of the India Against Corruption movement, was attended with particular interest. The AAP managed to win 28 out of 70 seats in the 2013 election in Delhi. The result in 2014: Nationwide, the AAP only won four seats (GlZ 11.2015; see FAZ 16.5.2014).

The election winner was officially announced on May 16, 2014: Narendra Modi from the opposition party Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which won an absolute majority with 282 of 543 seats. On the other hand, heavy losses for the coalition led by the Congress under Manmohan Singh, which has ruled since 2004. Sonia Gandhi and son Rahul are now moving to the opposition bench (Eurasisches Magazin May 24, 2014; see FAZ May 16, 2014, GIZ 11.2015). The new head of government is the previous Chief Minister of Gujarat State, Narenda Modi. This also nourishes the fear of a flare-up of communalism (GIZ 11.2015).

Swell:

? AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

? AA - Foreign Office (10.2015a): India, domestic policy, http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/sid_AC539C62A8F3AE6159C84F7909652AC5/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/Indien/innenpolitik_node.html, accessed November 9, 2015

? BBC - British Broadcasting Corporation (28.10.2015): India country profile - Overview,

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12557384, accessed on November 9, 2015

? CIA - Central Intelligence Agency (28.10.2015): The World Factbook - India,

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html, accessed on November 9, 2015

? Eurasisches Magazin (May 24, 2014): Where is the greatest democracy on earth going?

http://www.eurasischesmagazin.de/artikel/Indien-nach-den-Wahlen-eine-Analyse/14017, accessed on November 9, 2015

? FAZ - Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (May 16, 2014): Modi is the man of the hour,

http://www.faz.net/aktuell/wirtschaft/fruehaufsteher/wahlentscheid-in-lösungen-modi-ist-der-mann-der-stunde-12941572.html, accessed on November 9, 2015

? GIZ - German Society for International Cooperation GmbH (11.2015): India,

http://liportal.giz.de/haben/geschichte-staat.html, accessed on November 9, 2015

? GIZ - German Society for International Cooperation GmBH (8/2015): India, Economic System and Economic Policy, http://liportal.giz.de/lösungen/wirtschaft-entwicklung/, accessed on November 9, 2015

? USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

2. Security situation

India is rich in tensions along ethnic lines, religions, castes and also life perspectives. Contradictions, contradictions or conflicts discharge in the social arenas and are taken up, processed and in some cases instrumentalized by politics (GIZ 11.2015). Bloody terrorist attacks have repeatedly claimed deaths in India's megacities in the past few years (Eurasisches Magazin, May 24, 2014). The tensions in the north-east of the country continue, as does the dispute with the Naxalites (GIZ 11.2015). The state's monopoly on the use of force is being called into question in some areas by the activities of the "Naxalites" (AA April 24, 2015).

India faces a number of security problems. There are several left-wing armed groups (Maoists) across the country. After an increase in the activity of insurgent groups in 2003-2010, these activities declined due to internal power struggles, limited support in the tribal communities and effective operations against their leadership by the security forces. In 2013, around 76 counties out of more than 600 counties in India experienced some form of Maoist violence. Insurgent groups from Pakistan have demonstrated their ability to launch attacks into central India via Indian-administered Kashmir - noteworthy are the December 2001 attacks on the Indian Parliament and the July 2006 and November 2008 attacks in Mumbai. Evidence from the Attacks in 2006 indicate that Pakistani groups are providing assistance to Indian cells. The attacks in 2008 were planned, supported and led from Pakistan. Local insurgent groups - both Hindu and Islamist - have been implicated in a series of terrorist attacks on key Indian cities. The security situation in the areas of Kashmir, northeast and especially in Assam is weak. There are always riots there. Another security issue of note is communal violence between the Hindu majority and the Muslim minority in the Indian population. Organized crime is also a problem in capitals, but not for foreign companies. There are kidnappings with ransom demands, but these are limited to the local population. The poor road safety in the country is a significant problem. The greatest immediate external security threat is Pakistan, especially in relation to the longstanding Kashmiri dispute (IHS- Jane's Sentinel Security July 1, 2014).

The government acts with great severity and rigor against militant groups, who mostly advocate the independence of certain regions and / or adhere to radical views, especially as soon as internal security is seen as endangered. If such groups renounce violence, the government is usually ready to negotiate their demands.Nonviolent independence groups are free to be politically active (AA 3/3/2014).

Despite several great successes by India's security and intelligence agencies, which repeatedly suffer from severe resource problems, the reality is that the security apparatus is still easily vulnerable (South Asia Terrorism Portal March 28, 2014).

Pakistan and India

Relations with our neighbors, Pakistan, who are also nuclear armed, remain complicated. Phases of dialogue and tensions through to armed conflict have replaced one another in the decades since independence (AA 10.2015c). The biggest obstacle to improving relationships is still the cashmere problem (AA 10.2015c). There have already been three wars since 1947, two of them due to the disputed Kashmiri area. Peace talks, which began in 2004, continued despite tensions over the Kashmir region and repeated heavy bomb attacks until the attacks by Islamists in Mumbai in 2008 (BBC October 28, 2015). India accuses Pakistan of at least tolerating infiltration of terrorists on Indian territory, if not promoting it (AA 10.2015c).

The South Asia Terrorism Portal recorded 1,073 deaths from terrorism-related violence in 2011, 803 in 2012, 885 in 2013, 976 in 2014 and 608 in 2015 (until October 25, 2015) [Note : the figures quoted include civilians, security forces and terrorists] (South Asia Terrorism Portal 10/30/2015).

In 2013 there were further serious incidents on the "Line of Control". At a meeting in New York at the end of September 2013, Prime Ministers Singh and Sharif merely agreed to better comply with the ceasefire in the future (GIZ 11.2015). Recently, there have been repeated exchanges of fire between Indian and Pakistani troops on the borderline between the two parts of Kashmir and, according to Indian sources, attempts by extremist fighters to break into Indian territory have been unsuccessful (AA 10.2015c).

No breakthrough has yet been achieved in the mutual attempts to put the bilateral relationship on a permanent political basis (AA 10.2015c). At his inauguration, Modi invited all neighboring heads of state - including Pakistan - to show his commitment to building closer ties in the region (HRW 01/29/2015).

Swell:

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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AA - Foreign Office (10.2015c): India - Foreign Policy, http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/Indien/Aussenpolitik_node.html#doc346922bodyText3, accessed November 9, 2015

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BBC - British Broadcasting Corporation (October 28, 2015): India profile

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Overview, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12557384, accessed on November 9, 2015

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Eurasisches Magazin (May 24, 2014): Where is the greatest democracy on earth going?

http://www.eurasischesmagazin.de/artikel/Indien-nach-den-Wahlen-eine-Analyse/14017, accessed on November 9, 2015

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GIZ - German Society for International Cooperation GmbH (11.2015): India,

http://liportal.giz.de/haben/geschichte-staat.html, accessed on November 9, 2015

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HRW - Human Rights Watch (January 29, 2015): World Report 2015 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/295494/430526_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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IHS - Jane's Sentinel Security (July 1, 2014): Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - South Asia - executive summary, India

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South Asia Terrorism Portal (October 30, 2015): India Assessment - 2014, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/index.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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South Asia Terrorism Portal (October 30, 2015): Data Sheet - India Fatalities: 1994-2015,

http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/database/indiafatalities.htm, accessed on November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

3. Legal protection / judicial system

In India there is a constitutionally guaranteed, independent judiciary with three levels of authority (AA April 24, 2015). The law guarantees an independent judiciary, but corruption was widespread in the judiciary (USDOS 6/25/2015).

The courts conduct criminal proceedings with judicial independence. A generally discriminatory criminal prosecution or sentencing practice cannot be determined, but the lower levels in particular are not free from corruption. Chief Justice Katju triggered a public controversy with a statement in autumn 2014 when he made corruption among the judges public and in one case also disclosed state influence on the appointment of a judge (AA April 24, 2015).

The judiciary continued to be overburdened and the backlog at the court led to long delays or the withholding of case law (USDOS 02/27/2014).

In August 2013, the Justice Minister announced that there were three positions in the Supreme Court and 275 positions in the high courts. Alarming was also the number of vacancies in the subordinate judiciary, with more than 3,700 positions to be filled. The Justice Minister attributed lengthy delays in the courts to the vacancies (USDOS 02/27/2014). An analysis by the Ministry of Justice revealed a vacancy of 34% of the judges at the higher courts on August 1, 2014 (USDOS June 25, 2015).

The often very long duration of the proceedings is very problematic, especially because the courts are overloaded. The standard duration of criminal proceedings (from the indictment to the judgment) is approximately four years; in some cases, proceedings take up to ten years. Witness protection is also inadequate. As a result, witnesses often do not testify freely in court because they have been bribed or threatened. (AA April 24, 2015).

The judiciary is separate from the executive. Judges showed considerable dedication to handling public interest litigation. However, in recent years judges have also opened proceedings for improper conduct in court against activists and journalists who have taken action against corruption in the judiciary or who have questioned judgments. Corruption is reported to be widespread in the lower levels of the judiciary. Many citizens have difficulty enforcing the law through the courts. The system is heavily backlogged and understaffed. This leads to prolonged pre-trial detention for many suspects, often longer than the actual sentence would be. (FH January 28, 2015; see FH May 19, 2014). The establishment of various fast-track courts to deal with pending court cases led to the right to a fair trial not being observed in some cases (FH May 19, 2015).

Rule of law guarantees enshrined in the constitution (e.g. the right to a fair trial, Art. 21) are restricted by a number of security laws. These laws were tightened again after the Mumbai terrorist attacks in November 2008; i.a. the presumption of innocence was suspended for certain criminal offenses. Particularly in unrest areas, the security forces have extensive powers to combat secessionist and terrorist groups, which are often used excessively. (AA April 24, 2015). Pretrial detention takes a long time. Except in the case of offenses threatened by the death penalty, the judge should order a detention review after half of the impending maximum sentence has expired and order a release on bail. However, with such an application, the person concerned accepts that the case will not be pursued for a long time. In the meantime, around 70% of all prisoners are remand prisoners, many because of minor offenses that lack the means to provide bail (AA April 24, 2015).

The criminal law provides for public negotiations, except in proceedings in which the statements may concern state secrets or state security. There is free legal advice for defendants in need, but in practice access to competent advice has often been limited. All evidence brought against a defendant must be accessible to him and convictions must be published (USDOS 02/27/2014).

The law allows defendants access to relevant government evidence in most civil and criminal cases, but the government retained the right to withhold information, including in cases it deemed sensitive. Defendants have the right to interview witnesses; underprivileged defendants sometimes do not enjoy this right due to lack of proper legal representation. The court is obliged to pronounce judgments publicly and there are effective ways of appeal in almost all levels of justice (USDOS 25.6.2015)

There are also informal council meetings in rural India, the decisions of which sometimes lead to violence against those who break social rules - especially women and members of the lower castes. (FH January 28, 2014)

Swell:

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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FH - Freedom House (January 28, 2015): Freedom in the World 2015 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/296800/433144_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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FH - Freedom House (May 19, 2014): Freedom in the World 2014 - India, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5379d1d710.html, accessed on November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (February 27, 2014): India, Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2013 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/270728/400811_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

4. Security agencies

The police act on the basis of the police laws of the individual states (AA 3/3/2014). The Indian Police Service is not a direct law enforcement or law enforcement agency. Rather, it acts as a training and recruiting agency for police officers in the states. With regard to the federal structures, the police are organized decentrally in the individual states. The individual units are organized on a decentralized basis, but in view of a national police law, numerous national criminal laws and the central recruiting office for executives described above, they have a number of things in common. In general, the police are entrusted with prosecuting, preventing and combating crime and maintaining public order, while at the same time exercising partial control over the various secret services (BICC 6.2014). In addition, there are largely paramilitary units subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior (AA April 24, 2015).

The Indian military is subordinate to civil administration and has shown little interest in a political role in the past. The supreme command is incumbent on the president. According to their self-image, the army is the "protector of the nation", but only in a military sense (BICC 6.2014). The military can also be active domestically if this is necessary to maintain internal security. (AA April 24, 2015; see BICC 6.2015)

such as in the fight against armed insurgents, supporting the police and paramilitary units, and deploying in natural disasters (BICC 6/2015).

In addition to structural deficits, a lack of trust in the reliability of the police arises from frequent reports of human rights violations such as torture and extrajudicial killings and threats that were allegedly perpetrated by the police (BICC 6.2015; see USDOS 25.6.2015; see HRW 29.1 .2015). The police are accused of serious human rights violations such as extrajudicial killings, torture and rape (USDOS 25.6.2015). The police remain overburdened, underpaid and exposed to political pressure. Political demands to identify perpetrators as quickly as possible after terrorist attacks and rape often lead to illegal arrests (USDOS June 25, 2015).

The Special Frontier Force is subordinate to the Prime Minister's Office. The so-called border special forces are an elite unit that is deployed on sensitive sections of the border with China. There are also legal bases for the activities of the secret services, the so-called intelligence bureau (domestic secret service) and the research and analysis wing ("Research and Analysis Wing"). The Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) is used as the legal basis for the deployment of armed forces - especially land forces - in unrest areas and against terrorists. The AFSPA gives the armed forces extensive powers to use lethal force, make arrests without a warrant, and search without a warrant. In their actions, those involved in the armed forces enjoy broad immunity from prosecution. The AFSPA comes into play after state governments declare their states or only parts of them to be "unrest areas" on the basis of the Disturbed Areas Act. The states of Jammu and Kashmir and the northeastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura are currently considered unrest areas (AA April 24, 2015 cf. USDOS June 25, 2015).

Terrorist attacks in previous years (December 2010 in Varanasi, July 2011

Mumbai, September 2011 New Delhi and Agra, April 2013 in Bangalore, May 2014 Chennai and December 2014 Bangalore) and in particular the attacks in Mumbai in November 2008 have put the government under pressure. Only a few of the attacks in recent years have been completely cleared up and the reform projects announced in response to these incidents to improve the Indian security architecture have not been implemented consistently. The "Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act" (UAPA) has been tightened. The changes include an expanded definition of terrorism and, in cases related to terrorism, the possibility of extending pre-trial detention without charge from 90 to 180 days and simplified rules for proving the perpetrator of a defendant (which in fact come close to reversing the burden of proof) (AA April 24, 2015) .

There were continued reports of police rape of detainees. Some rape victims were afraid to come forward and report the crime because of the threat of social stigma and possible retaliation, especially if the perpetrator was a police officer or other official. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has the mandate to investigate rape cases involving police officers. The NHRC is legally empowered to request information about members of the military and paramilitary forces, but has no client to investigate cases in which these units are involved (USDOS 6/25/2015).

Swell:

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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BICC - Bonn International Center for Conversion (6/2015):

Information service - security, armaments and development in recipient countries of German arms exports: Country information India,

http://ruestungsexport.info/uploads/pdf/countries/20157/haben.pdf, accessed on November 9, 2015

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HRW - Human Rights Watch (January 29, 2015): World Report 2015 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/295494/430526_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

5. Torture and Inhuman Treatment

Torture is banned in India; Statements obtained as a result of torture are not permitted for use in court (AA April 24, 2015; see USDOS June 25, 2015). The law thus bans torture, but there are reports from NGOs that such practices are widespread, especially in conflict areas (USDOS 6/25/2015). The state persecutes torture. However, security forces repeatedly use torture during interrogation. Torture by police officers, the army and paramilitary units often goes unpunished because the victims do not know their rights, are intimidated or do not survive the torture (AA April 24, 2015). Promised police reforms are dragging on (HRW 01/29/2015).

According to human rights experts, the government continued to attempt to arrest people and to blame them for violations of the - repealed - Anti-Terrorism, Acts of Terrorism and Destructive Act. This law stated that confessions made in front of a police officer would be treated as admissible evidence in court (USDOS 6/25/2015).

Although India signed the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in 1997, it has not yet ratified it (AA April 24, 2015). In addition, no changes to national legislation necessary for ratification have been introduced (BICC 6.2015). A national draft law to combat torture, which is a national requirement for ratification of the UN Anti-Torture Convention, was not passed by parliament (AA April 24, 2015).

According to reliable information from the "Asia Pacific Human Rights Network", torture is systematically used by the police as a means of questioning and extorting money or as a summary punishment of alleged perpetrators (AA April 24, 2015; cf.USDOS 6/25/2015); According to reliable assessments by NGOs, deaths of prisoners are related to the use of torture. Systematic torture continues to occur in interrogation centers in Jammu and Kashmir, according to credible, confidential estimates by the ICRC. Torture is also used in other parts of the country, especially in socially disadvantaged and populous countries such as Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. According to reliable information from Amnesty International, torture and ill-treatment in prisons are widespread (AA April 24, 2015).

The human rights situation in India varies greatly from region to region. While civil and human rights are largely respected by the government, the situation in regions where there are internal conflicts is sometimes very bad. This applies in particular to Jammu and Kashmir and the north-east of the country (BICC 6.2015; cf. AA April 24, 2015). The security forces, but also the non-state armed groups, be they separatist organizations or militias loyal to the government, are accused of massive human rights violations. The military and paramilitary units are charged with kidnapping, torture, rape, arbitrary arrest and extrajudicial executions. There are fears that the new, draconian anti-terrorist legislation will worsen the human rights situation and that these laws will be misused against political opponents (BICC 6/2015). Socially weak classes and women are particularly at risk (AA April 24, 2015).

Individuals - or NGOs on behalf of individuals or groups - can submit public interest litigation petitions to any high court or directly to the Supreme Court to seek legal redress for public violations. These complaints can be a violation of government duties by a government employee or a violation of constitutional provisions. NGOs very much appreciate these motions to hold government officials accountable to civil society organizations for corruption and partiality (USDOS June 25, 2015).

Swell:

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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BICC - Bonn International Center for Conversion (6/2015):

Information service - security, armaments and development in recipient countries of German arms exports: Country information India,

http://ruestungsexport.info/uploads/pdf/countries/20157/haben.pdf, accessed on November 9, 2015

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HRW - Human Rights Watch (January 29, 2015): World Report 2015 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/295494/430526_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

6. Corruption

Corruption is widespread (USDOS 6/25/2015). India appears in the 2014 corruption index of Transparency International on place 85 (note: 2013 place 94) out of a total of 175 countries (TI 12.2014).

The fight against corruption was intensified through domestic and international pressure. Although politicians and officials are caught taking bribes every year, there are numerous cases of corruption that go unnoticed and go unpunished. National and international pressure has led to legal measures to combat corruption. After years of large-scale social mobilization by activists, Parliament passed the Lok Pal and Lokayuktas Law, which the President signed in January 2014. The law creates independent state bodies to which complaints about corrupt officials or politicians can be directed and which are empowered to investigate the complaints and prosecute convictions in court. At the federal level, this facility is called Lok Pal, and the law requires states to set up their own anti-corruption institutions, known as Lokayuktas, within a year. However, questions about enforcement remain open. Since 2008 at least 29 "right to information activists" have been murdered and 164 have been attacked or harassed (FH January 28, 2015).

The law provides penalties for corruption in the public service, but the government has not effectively implemented the law and, in practice, public officials often get away with corrupt practices. Corruption is present at all levels of government. The CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) registered 583 cases of corruption during the investigation period [note: January to November]. The CBI operates a toll-free hotline - to record complaints - and a web portal to publish information (USDOS June 25, 2015).

NGOs report that bribes are commonly used to expedite legal proceedings, for police protection, for school enrollment, or access to water supplies or grants. Civil society organizations drew public attention to the issue of corruption throughout 2014 through public demonstrations and websites (USDOS June 25, 2015).

The government appointed Chief Vigilance Offifers to investigate public complaints and grievances in banking, insurance and other sectors serviced by private, public and corporate bodies. Parliament passed a law on ombudsman organization, Lok Pal, in December to investigate allegations of government corruption (USDOS 6/25/2015).

The lower areas of the judiciary are particularly affected by corruption and most citizens have difficulties obtaining justice through the courts (FH January 28, 2015). Many state-sponsored programs for poverty reduction and job creation suffered from corruption. (USDOS 6/25/2015).

A new helpline to help people deal with government bribery claims in the capital, Delhi, received more than 4,000 calls in the first few hours of its existence. The Anti-Corruption Helpline is an initiative of the new Aam Aadami (Common Citizens) Party (AAP), which governs Delhi with the support of the Congress Party. This helpline is available 14 hours a day and is intended to help fight everyday corruption (BBC 9/1/2014).

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BBC - British Broadcasting Corporation (9/1/2014): India's Delhi government's anti-corruption helpline gets thousands of calls, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-25663763, accessed 11/9/2015

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FH - Freedom House (January 28, 2015): Freedom in the World 2015 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/296800/433144_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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TI - Transparency International (December 2014): Corruption Perceptions Index 2014, http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results, accessed November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

7. General human rights situation

The human rights situation in India varies greatly from region to region (BICC 6/2015). Essential fundamental rights are guaranteed in the Indian constitution. However, a number of security laws limit the rule of law guarantees (AA April 24, 2015). While civil and human rights are largely respected by the government, the situation in regions where there are internal conflicts is sometimes very bad. This is particularly true of Jammu and Kashmir and the northeast of the country. The security forces, but also the non-state armed groups, be they separatist organizations or militias loyal to the government, are accused of massive human rights violations. The military and paramilitary units are charged with kidnapping, torture, rape, arbitrary arrest and extrajudicial executions. There are fears that the new, draconian anti-terrorist legislation will worsen the human rights situation and that these laws will be misused against political opponents. Women, members of ethnic and religious minorities and lower castes are systematically discriminated against. The security forces have been accused of partiality, particularly over the tension between Hindus and Muslims, which resulted in thousands of deaths in 2002. The mood is fueled by Hindu nationalist parties, which are also represented in the government (BICC 6.2015).

The authorities continue to violate citizens' privacy. In some states, the law restricts religious conversion and there have been reports of arrests but no convictions under that law. Some restrictions on freedom of movement persist (USDOS 6/25/2015).

In October 1993 the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) was established. Its statutes include the protection of the 1993 Human Rights Act. The commission embodies India's concern for the protection of human rights. It is independent and was established by an implementing law of the parliament. The NHRC has the power of a civil court (NHRC o. D.). The NHRC recommends that the Criminal Investigation Bureau investigate all murders in which the alleged suspects were killed during their indictment, arrest, or attempted escape. Many states have not followed this non-binding advice and conducted internal audits at the discretion of their managers. The NHRC guidelines direct state governments to report all police deaths to the NHRC within 48 hours, but many state governments did not adhere to these guidelines. The NHRC directed the state government to provide financial compensation to the families of victims, but state governments did not consistently comply with these guidelines. The security forces did not have to report deaths while in custody to the NHRC (USDOS 6/25/2015).

The constitutional and legal order contain guarantees for basic human rights and freedoms. The implementation of these constitutional goals is not fully guaranteed (AA April 24, 2015). Rule of law guarantees enshrined in the constitution (e.g. the right to a fair trial) are restricted by a number of security laws. These laws were tightened after the Mumbai terrorist attacks in November 2008; Among other things, the presumption of innocence was suspended for certain criminal offenses. Particularly in unrest areas, the security forces have extensive powers to combat secessionist and terrorist groups, which are often used excessively (AA April 24, 2015).

Twenty-three of the 29 states have human rights commissions that conduct independent investigations but work under the National Human Rights Commission. In seven states the position of chairman remained vacant. Human rights groups suspected that the human rights commissions were restricted in their activities by local politics (USDOS 25.6.2015).

Some human rights organizations alleged that legal and institutional weaknesses hampered the work of the NHRC. While the NHRC has the authority to investigate and investigate complaints, or to require the federal government to publish a report, it does not have the power to enforce inquiries, initiate criminal prosecutions, or order interim compensation, nor is it able to independently commit human rights violations by the armed forces to pursue. Human rights organizations criticized the NHRC's financial dependence on the government and its policy of not investigating violations that are more than a year old. They alleged that the NHRC did not register all violations, failed to thoroughly investigate cases, returned complaints to the alleged perpetrator and did not adequately protect complainants (USDOS 6/25/2015).

The NHRC worked together with various NGOs. The NGOs also had several representations on several NHRC committees. Human rights monitors in Jammu and Kashmir were able to document human rights violations, but they were hindered or harassed in their work by security forces, the police and insurgents (USDOS June 25, 2015).

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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BICC - Bonn International Center for Conversion (6/2015):

Information service - security, armaments and development in recipient countries of German arms exports: Country information India,

http://ruestungsexport.info/uploads/pdf/countries/20157/haben.pdf, accessed on November 9, 2015

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NHRC - The National Human Rights Commission India (undated): The National Human Rights Commission India, http://www.nhrc.nic.in/Documents/Publications/NHRCindia.pdf, accessed on November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

7.1 Freedom of assembly and association

The law regulates the freedom of assembly and association and the government generally respects these rights (USDOS 6/25/2015; cf. AA 4/24/2015).

The law provides for freedom of assembly. Authorities often require permission and notice before parades and demonstrations are held. Aside from Jammu and Kashmir, local governments generally respected the right to peaceful demonstrations. In Jammu and Kashmir, the local government sometimes refuses to allow separatist groups to hold public meetings, and the security forces sometimes arrest or attack members of political groups participating in peaceful protests. During times of unrest in Jammu and Kashmir, the authorities used the Code of Criminal Procedure to prohibit public gatherings or to impose curfews. There are restrictions when organizing international conferences and permits from the Ministry of the Interior can only be obtained with the help of NGOs. Even if the approval process is lengthy in some cases, the authorizations are routinely granted by the authorities (USDOS June 25, 2015).

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

8. Conditions of detention

Approximately 400,000 people are currently imprisoned in India. The proportion of prison inmates in the total population is very low at approx. 0.03%. Nevertheless, the prisons are overcrowded (AA April 24, 2015). The sanitary facilities, food, medical care and environmental conditions are often inadequate. Drinking water is only sometimes available. Prisons and prisons are still understaffed and there is a lack of adequate infrastructure. Detainees are treated badly physically. Government, mass media and activist statistics report serious overcrowding and high numbers of prisoners in pre-trial detention (USDOS June 25, 2015).

Conditions of detention can vary widely. The basic supply of food is guaranteed (standard of an Indian basic supply), the prisoners are responsible for hygiene themselves, basic medical care is also guaranteed on a regular basis. Inmates can move around the prison yard during the day and do sports. Every prisoner can improve the prison conditions in terms of accommodation, hygiene, food and medical treatment through monetary payments. It is also common for detainees to receive additional care from relatives. Special treatment for foreigners is not provided (AA April 24, 2015). Detainees on remand are often detained together with convicted detainees (USDOS June 25, 2015).

According to the National Commission on Human Rights, a large proportion of deaths in prisons can be traced back to diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV / AIDS, which are exacerbated or accelerated by prison conditions and inadequate care. Basic medical care is available in the prisons and hospitalized if necessary. The majority of the prisoners are prisoners on remand, who have to wait years for their trial to begin because of the extremely heavy workload of the courts (AA April 24, 2015).

The Public Safety Act only applies in Jammu and Kashmir and allows state agencies to arrest people without charge or judicial review for up to two years. During this time, family members are not allowed to have access to the inmates. Detainees are allowed access to a lawyer during questioning. In practice, the police in Jammu and Kashmir regularly carry out arbitrary arrests and deny detainees, especially the poor, access to lawyers and medical care (USDOS 6/25/2015).

Prisoners also have the right to perform their religious rites, which in practice is taken into account in most cases. The government allows NGOs to offer support to prisoners within certain guidelines. Prison officials keep extensive records. There is no ombudsman for prisons, but prisoners are allowed to submit complaints to the judicial authorities.Alternative prison methods are rarely used (USDOS 6/25/2015).

Government, media and activist statistics report serious overcrowding and large numbers of detainees on remand. According to a 2013 report by the National Human Rights Commission published in 2014, the prisons in Chhattisgarh were at 261 percent of their capacity and the prisons in Delhi at 216 percent of their capacity (USDOS 6/25/2015). According to a 2013 report by the Human Rights Commission, India had 1,391 prisons with a permitted capacity of 347,859 people. The number of people actually detained was 411,992, two thirds of whom were waiting for a trial. There were 18,188 female prisoners - about 4.4% of the prisoner number - and less than one percent young people (USDOS 6/25/2015).

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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USDOS - US Department of State (June 25, 2015): Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306292/443589_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

9. Freedom of religion

The CIA World Factbook estimates India's population at over 1.2 billion (as of July 2015). The largest religious groups, based on their share of the total population in the 2001 census, are Hindus (79.8%), Muslims (14.2%), Christians (2.3%) and Sikhs (1.7% ) (CIA Factbook October 28, 2015). Muslims, Sikh, Christians, Parsis, Janais and Buddhists are legally recognized minority groups (USDOS October 14, 2015; cf. AA April 25, 2015). The law states that the government protects the existence of these religious minorities and favors conditions for the promotion of their individual identities. State governments are empowered to legally grant minority status to religious groups (USDOS 10/14/2015).

Freedom of religion is guaranteed in the constitution (AA April 25, 2015) and is generally also respected in practice (FH January 28, 2015). Protection includes both internal freedom of belief and the exercise and in principle also the spread of religion. However, there is growing resistance to missionary activities by evangelical churches (AA April 25, 2015).

The constitution guarantees religious freedom, orders a secular state, calls on the state to treat all religions impartially and forbids discrimination on a religious basis, including with regard to the employment situation. National and federal law, however, place religious freedom subject to public order, health and morals (USDOS 10/14/2015).

Legislation in several states with a Hindu majority prohibits religious conversion that occurs through coercion or "lure" - which can be interpreted very broadly in order to persecute persons who are active in missionary work (FH January 28, 2015). There are active anti-conversion laws in six of the 29 states: Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Madhya Pradesh. In Arunachal Pradesh this anti-conversion law is not implemented due to the lack of approval of the legislation. The authorities declare these laws as protective measures for vulnerable individuals against an induced change of religion. For example, Gujarat law prohibits conversions by "lure, coercion or fraud" (USDOS 10/14/2015).

The law generally provides legal remedies, including imprisonment and fines, for violations of religious freedom. There is also legal protection in the event of discrimination or persecution against private individuals. Federal agencies including the Ministry for Minority Affairs, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) can investigate allegations of religious discrimination (USDOS 10/14/2015 ). Social violence based on gender, religion, caste or tribal affiliation was one of the most important human rights problems (USDOS June 25, 2015). In the run-up to the 2013 elections, there were incidents of violence against religious minorities. According to government sources, 133 people were killed and 2,269 injured in 823 incidents (HRW 01/29/2015).

Civil status laws only apply to certain religious communities in matters of marriage, divorce, adoption and inheritance. The government grants considerable autonomy to civil status bodies in drafting these laws. Hindu law, Christian law, Parsi law and Islamic law are legally recognized and legally enforceable (USDOS 10/14/2015).

Violent clashes between religious groups are not tolerated by the government; according to official information from the Indian Ministry of the Interior, their number has declined slightly over the past three years. However, the situation of the predominantly Catholic Christians (according to the last census in 2011 approx. 2.3% of the Indian population) has become more difficult in recent years due to the strengthening of Hindu nationalist movements. From the Hindu nationalist side the churches are accused of proselytism (enticing away believers) without differentiation. Incidents such as the violent attacks on five Catholic churches in Delhi have caused uncertainty among Christians since December 2014. Prime Minister Modi committed himself to freedom of religion and the equality of all religions in February 2015. There is no evidence of state persecution of Christians. However, in the last few years five EU states have passed laws that make it more difficult for Dalits in particular to convert to Christianity, who want to avoid the ongoing discrimination by higher-caste Hindus. A conversion ban law is required from radical Hindu organizations (AA April 25, 2015).

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 25, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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CIA - Central Intelligence Agency (October 28, 2015): The World Factbook

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India,

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html, accessed on November 9, 2015

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FH - Freedom House (January 28, 2015): Freedom in the World 2014 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/296800/433144_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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HRW - Human Rights Watch (January 29, 2015): World Report 2015 - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/295494/430526_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

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USDOS - US Department of State (February 27, 2014): India, Country Report on Human Rights Practices,

http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper, accessed on March 9, 2014

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USDOS - US Department of State (October 14, 2015): 2014 Report on International Religious Freedom - India, http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/313351/451615_de.html, accessed November 9, 2015

10. Ethnic minorities

The constitution contains a guarantee to protect against discrimination on the grounds of belonging to a certain religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth. Minorities have the right to their own educational institutions and to maintain their language, writing and culture (AA April 24, 2015).

In order to integrate minorities more strongly into public life and to increase their chances, the lowest stratum of the caste system (so-called "Dalits") as well as the so-called tribal population ("Adivasis") experience positive discrimination, the permissibility of which is laid down in the constitution. In the education system and in state administration, quotas of up to 49.5% are required for the so-called "Scheduled" Castes and "Scheduled" Tribes ("scheduled" = castes and tribes mentioned in the constitution) and for other disadvantaged groups, "Other Backward Castes ", provided (AA April 24, 2015).

English enjoys the status of the secondary official language, but is the most important language for national, political and economic communication. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and the primary language used by 41% of people. There are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit. Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi / Urdu and is widely spoken in northern India, but is not an official language according to the 2001 census (CIA Factbook October 28, 2015). The national census categorizes the population based on the languages ​​spoken, but not based on racial or ethnic groups. Historically, society was divided into castes, a complex traditional hierarchy based on ritual purity and occupational groups. Although caste discrimination was banned in the 1949 Constitution, registration for positive funding programs remains in place and the government continues to operate various programs to strengthen lower caste members. The law gives the president the power to designate disadvantaged castes and tribes for special quotas and privileges. However, discrimination based on caste membership remains widespread, especially in rural areas (USDOS June 25, 2015).

Despite state efforts, religious or social minorities are disadvantaged in the public and private sectors. This is particularly evident in the countryside. According to credible reports from Human Rights Watch, the Human Rights Law Network, and related media reports, ethnic and religious minorities, as well as "casteless" (Dalits) in particular, continue to face discriminatory practices by the police and the criminal justice system. In several federal states (including Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh), cases were repeatedly recorded in 2014 in which Dalits who had publicly complained about denied entry to temples or other forms of discrimination were subsequently mistreated or killed by strangers. The police and law enforcement officers often do not intervene or intervene only cautiously in the event of acts of violence committed by members of the religious and / or ethnic majority population against minorities. The slow work of the police authorities caused outrage in 2014, especially in cases of sexual violence against underage Dalit girls and in the investigation of mass rape following unrest in Muzaffarnagar (AA April 24, 2015).

To protect the disadvantaged groups and ensure their representation in the lower house of parliament, each state must reserve seats for the protected castes and tribes in proportion to the population of the state. Only candidates belonging to these groups are allowed to vote in the elections in the reserved constituencies. In the 2014 elections, 84 seats were reserved for candidates from the protected castes and 47 for those from the protected tribes, making a total of 24 percent of the seats in the lower house. Members of the minority population served as Prime Ministers, Vice-Presidents, Supreme Court Justices, and Members of Parliament (USDOS 6/25/2015).

The constitution prohibits caste discrimination and laws set quotas in educational institutions and government employment for so-called "registered" castes (Dalits) and tribes, as well as some other so-called "disadvantaged classes". Members of the lower castes and minorities continue to face everyday discrimination. Dalits are often denied access to land and public facilities, they experience poor treatment by landowners and the police, and are often forced to work under poor conditions (FH January 28, 2015).

There is a multitude of different tribes and ethnic groups, especially in India's northeast. Their relationship with one another and with the central government harbors great potential for conflict. There are around 100 rebel groups whose activities have cost tens of thousands of lives to date. Actions by the police and the military are directed against this militant violence, but not against certain ethnic groups. The economically tense situation is seen as an essential breeding ground for militant rebels. In Assam in December 2014, violent attacks by militant groups on Adivasis resulted in the deaths of at least 80 people and the flight of around 200,000 people. One of the main triggers of the militant rebellion in the northeastern states is the uncontrolled influx of illegal (Muslim) immigrants, especially from Bangladesh, perceived as a threat (AA April 24, 2015).

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AA - Federal Foreign Office (April 24, 2015): Report on the asylum and deportation-related situation in the Republic of India

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CIA - Central Intelligence Agency (October 28, 2015): The World Factbook