What are the characteristics of extraversion

Big Five: What determines personality

Maybe you have heard of the Big Five - or the five-factor model in the Personality psychology. Then, roughly speaking, each character can be determined on the basis of the respective characteristics of these five main characteristics. They are: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, tolerance and conscientiousness. Instead of classifying personalities into "types" as was customary in the past, the Big Five create individual personality profiles ...

➠ Content: This is what awaits you

➠ Content: This is what awaits you

Big Five: How Psychology Discovered 5 Factors

Even the ancient Greeks tried to develop the personality of the human being systematically recorded. The four-element theory is, so to speak, an ancient forerunner of the Big Five, the people using the "elements" Water, fire, air and earth assigns certain character types.

The Big Five as it is today has its origins in the 1930s, when various British and American researchers first came up with one lexical approach chose. Among others, the psychologist Raymond Bernard Cattell and in 1936 Gordon Allport and Henry Sebastian Odbert, who compiled a list of 18,000 adjectives.

The thought behind it: The human language Develops special terms for all personal characteristics that are important, interesting or useful in any way. In the course of the decades this list was reduced to 4,500 adjectives, later to 16 (Cattell, 16 PF = 16 personality factors) and finally to five personality factors (Paul Costa and Robert McCrae).

These make up every personality, regardless of which one statistical methods or which questionnaire tools be used or in which cultural area Is tested.

The term “Big Five” goes back to the American researcher Lewis Goldberg, who continued the lexical research. In the nineties started across Europe different personality researchers to transfer the structure to their language.

Personality traits of the OCEAN model

The Big Five are by far best documented and researched model for personality research. In the English-speaking world, two acronyms are formed from the first letters of the personality traits - either CANOE (in German: canoe) or the more common OCEAN, which is why the five personality factors are also called OCEAN model referred to as:

This is how the Big Five and Traits maybe a bit complicated. Hence the explanations for each Properties in detail:

  1. Openness to experience

    (Openness) People with high openness values ​​often state that they have a lively fantasy life, clearly perceive their own feelings - positive and negative - and are interested in many personal and public events. You describe yourself as ...

    • inquisitive
    • curious
    • intellectually
    • imaginative
    • willing to experiment
    • artistically interested.

    People with this strong expression are more willing to critically question existing norms and to respond to new social, ethical and political values. They are independent in their judgment, often behave unconventionally and try out new ways of acting and prefer variety.

    On the other hand, those who are only slightly open-minded tend to be conservative and cautious and prefer the known and tried and tested.

  2. conscientiousness

    (Conscientiousness) People act with high levels of conscientiousness ...

    • organized
    • careful
    • planning
    • effectively
    • responsible
    • reliable
    • considered.

    This character expression stands above all for self-control, accuracy, a sense of responsibility and determination. Many attribute this characteristic to have a decisive influence on later professional success.

    People who are less conscientious are noticeable for their carefree and spontaneous lifestyle. You could also say: You like to let Fünfe be straight.

  3. Extraversion

    (Extraversion) The main characteristic of people with high extraversion or low introversion scores is that they are sociable. You like to describe yourself as ...

    • self confident
    • active
    • talkative
    • energetic
    • bright
    • optimistic.

    Extraverts (also known as “extroverts”) like the company of people, they feel particularly comfortable in groups and at social gatherings, they love interpersonal contacts, are masters of networking and anything but shy or shy.

    Conversely: introverts prefer to work alone, work for themselves and independently of others and are picky about their social contacts. In the extreme, they can even be downright withdrawn and shy of people.

  4. compatibility

    (Agreeableness) A central characteristic of people with high tolerance values ​​is their latent altruism. You meet others ...

    • understanding
    • benevolent
    • willing to compromise
    • compassionate

    You are eager to help others and are convinced that they will one day also act helpful. They tend towards interpersonal trust, cooperation and indulgence, and they have a strong need for harmony. These people tend to avoid conflicts or give in more often.

    The other way round, of course, there is also intolerance: These people are not afraid of conflict, but rather like to go on a confrontational course. For them, life is, in the extreme, a single competition and competitive struggle in which there are only winners and defeats. People with low tolerance levels tend to be self-centered and suspicious of others.

  5. Neuroticism

    (Neuroticism) People with high neuroticism scores more often state that they are easily unbalanced. Compared to emotionally stable people, they report more often experiencing negative emotional states or being downright overwhelmed by them. You report a lot of worries and often state ...

    • shocked
    • affected
    • ashamed
    • unsure
    • embarrassed
    • nervous
    • scared
    • Sad

    …to react. In short: these people are usually highly sensitive and more prone to stress than others. On top of that, these strong emotions resonate with them even longer.

    However, people with higher neuroticism scores are also ascribed a higher level of empathy.

Deviations possible depending on the culture

All people around the globe can be identified by character based on just five features of the Big Five? Even in 2005 that was the result of an in 50 countries on all continents conducted study with around 12,000 participants.

This statement must be qualified: Researchers at the University of California at Santa Barbara studied 600 people using Big Five questionnaires indigenous Tsimane people in Bolivia. Far from modern societies, they live as hunters, gatherers and farmers and are 60 percent illiterate.

And lo and behold: values ​​such as openness to new things, which are important in this country due to constant changes, played no role there. That made them all the more important Diligence and social usefulness rated. No wonder, as survival in such societies depends on everyone's cooperation.

These 2012 results were also used by other countries such as China and South Africa shaken, who show deviations in the meaning of personality traits. One possible explanation: Older studies mainly carried out surveys in industrialized countries with linguistically savvy people.

As large as the deviations may be, most of the researchers involved do not question the Big Five. Rather, it offers a good starting model that probably modified in the future For South Africa, for example, one could look at the importance of social relationships Big Nine come out.

Influence of genes on personality

What is the meaning of the Big Five and what do they mean for the world of work? Some researchers assume that around 30 percent of our personality are influenced by the environment, i.e. the vast majority of 70 percent is genetic.

Others see a person's personality as being 50 percent inherited and 50 percent influenced by the environment. Either way, the characteristics do not change much later. When you reach the age of thirty, a stable phase is reached in the personality, which is merely in old age changes again - for example, many people are less open.

In the past, intelligence was believed to be the only factor in success. It was later assumed that there was an interplay Intelligence and motivation that helps make someone successful. Researchers are now assuming that intelligence is evident in what someone does and what they are for purely intellectually capable is. Whether a person also uses this intelligence, however, is a question of personality (Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Adrian Furnham).

Test your properties here

Do you want to know, what personality traits are typical of you are? Then take this little test:

Or you'd prefer something about Your competencies Experienced? Then try this test:

More about different Types of intelligence find out here:

Further free self-analyzes you'll find here:

The characteristic that leads to success

The Big Five serve as a basis for psychologists to understand why some people are more successful than others. Heinz Schuler from the University of Hohenheim discovered that Conscientiousness the most important feature for success in professional life.

Conscientiousness - also known as rigidity - seems to have a positive effect on everything that people tackle. That makes sense, because being diligent means being someone well-planned, well-considered, meticulous and reliable acts. This efficiency ultimately contributes to success.

Exactly this procedure is used, for example, as preparation recommended for exams. It is no secret that acquiring knowledge the day before is not very effective. According to Schuler, another personality trait of the Big Five also has a negative effect on success: neuroticism.

Neuroticism means that when someone is very pronounced, a lot more nervous and less stress-resistant is. This can result in developing greater dissatisfaction and, for example, giving up more quickly if it is unsuccessful.

If success is measured in terms of income, that often turns out to be a success financially down: Research shows that people with high levels of neuroticism often have a greater need for security and are less willing to take risks. If the motive for achievement and the sense of duty are not very pronounced in them, they earn significantly less.

Five factor model is reflected in career choice

Depending on which personality trait is particularly pronounced, some professions and positions are more suitable, others less. Openness, for example, is a characteristic that actors and artists bring with them because they love variety. According to the organizational psychologist Lars Satow, the Big Five can be used to identify the Explain professional groups:

  • Workers

    Workers have very low scores for openness and extraversion. They therefore have a great need for security, performance and recognition.

  • Employees

    Employees tend to have average values. It is characterized neither by a pronounced striving for power nor a strong motive for achievement. They implement guidelines for their job, they do not create anything new, so creativity is also not required.

  • Officer

    Typical for civil servants are the high values ​​for conscientiousness, along with low values ​​for extraversion and openness. Here, too, the desire for security dominates. If you keep in mind the handling of sensitive data, it is understandable that care and conscientiousness are very useful qualities in this professional field. However, it also explains why so many (civil servant) teachers persevere in their job, even though they are unhappy - the need for security is of course most likely to be satisfied here.

  • Self-employed

    It is characterized by a high degree of openness and low neuroticism values. The will to explore new paths combined with the necessary fearlessness to take risks. Unsurprisingly, their need for security is low. But they want to be their own master, the need for power and the motive for achievement are strong in them.

Big five in personnel selection

Big Five is not just for self-description but also suitable for external description. For example, personality profiles of those who are to work in a company can be created. This helps decisively in the selection of personnel, which is made on the basis of aptitude diagnostics.

Personality tests based on the Big Five are just as good at gaining a better understanding of the different people Characters on the team to win. This knowledge is valuable when restructuring fields of work, but also serves to develop individual potential.

For example, the Big Five are suitable for the Selection of suitable managers. Usually, characteristics such as increased emotional resilience, greater intellectual openness, flexibility, less accommodating, willingness to make decisions and willingness to take risks are important.

And studies have shown that extraversion correlates with leadership behavior: Suitable managers accordingly have a high degree of extraversion, conscientiousness and openness, on the other hand significantly lower neuroticism values.

Which one Personality profile is asked in detail by a manager, ultimately depends on the company and the area of ​​activity itself.

Competition for the Big Five: The Hexaco model

As noted above, the Big Five have long been the undisputed number one in psychology, although there are quite a few Alternative models gives. These will possibly include more personality factors in the future. One step in this direction is the so-called Hexaco model, which adds another factor to the Big Five: honesty and modesty.

As with the Big Five, exist here too different characteristicsDepending on the character, this feature is sometimes more or less strongly present.

  • Strongly pronounced

    Manipulation for one's own benefit is alien to such people. Instead, fairness and compliant behavior are very important. There is little interest in wealth and lavish luxury, as is status thinking.

  • Weakly pronounced

    If honesty and humility are poor, manipulation and rule breaking are used to get what is wanted. This includes flattery and lies as well as breaking the law. Such people show little consideration for others; they themselves are the focus of their considerations.

Depending on the context and characteristics, honesty and humility have both advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, they are called important properties perceived, at the same time you can block some paths with it.

Those who are very humble will come to terms with the Presentation of his successes always keep in the background. It is very likely that good performance is more easily overlooked, ergo: professional advancement is inhibited.

Extroverts have more fun and live longer

Timothy Church, a psychology professor at Washington State University, and his team studied the behavior of students in the USA, Venezuela, China, the Philippines and Japan. In doing so, they categorized the patterns according to the so-called Big Five personality traits - and found globally: test subjects who regularly went out of their way (vulgo: Extroverts), showed particularly often positive feelings in everyday life, felt accepted, emotionally stable, free, in short: they were happier than the rest. And across cultures.

Back in 2012, the scientist William Fleeson, also a psychology professor at Wake Forest University in North Carolina, found out that introverts are happier and more satisfied when they are extroverted behavior patterns assumptions, such as smiling at strangers or just calling a few old acquaintances.

In turn, a 2011 University of Illinois study concluded that people who happy have a longer life expectancy, partly because Joy of life strengthens the immune system and reduces stress.

In short, one could say: Extroverts live longer.

Whether you agree to this or not: it certainly can't hurt to step out of yourself every now and then ...

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