Phentermine can cause kidney stones
Stone Center Urine and Serum Bank
While great strides have been made in the surgical treatment of kidney stones, the means to do so have lagged far behind in identifying high risk patients for kidney stone prevention. Urinary stone disease is a common problem, causing significant disability and sometimes death. and costs society $ 1.8 billion a year. It is therefore important to identify those patients who are at risk or in the process of developing kidney stones and to develop procedures to stop and / or prevent stone formation. Unfortunately, the methods currently used for identifying such patients are inadequate. Kidney stone patients undergo urine and serum tests to try to identify substances that are either in excess or in deficiency in the body. The amounts of these substances are then adjusted by changing diet and / or using medication. Often times, patients who have diet or medication corrected their abnormal values, or others who have no identifiable risk factors, continue to form stones. Clearly, current test methods to identify the continuous formation of stones are largely insufficient due to the fact that the causes of this disease are not fully understood.
There is strong evidence of a role proteins play in both promoting stone formation and in its prevention. Additionally, there may be hereditary factors (i.e., a family history) that may increase the risk of some patients becoming chronic kidney stone builders. This suggests a very complex cause of the disease and underscores the need and importance of identifying the genes and proteins involved in stone formation.
Urine and serum samples are taken from study and control groups. The study group will be formed from confirmed kidney stone patients followed up to after recovery and control group of healthy individuals. Control patients have no history of kidney stone disease. Control subjects may be asked to undergo a renal screening ultrasound to ensure they are stone-free.
If a ureteral stent is placed in stone patients after surgery, it is usually thrown in the trash. With this study, it is removed and the surface of the stent is examined for crystals and adherent proteins. The collected samples are submitted for SELDI analysis and for measurement of non-protein components. Each patient's serum The sample is also submitted for protein analysis. Other samples are stored indefinitely until used. The urine, serum, and ureteral stents obtained in this study are banked at -80C in a locked, secure area.
The study group is recruited through the Urology and Stone Clinic in the Diamond Health Care Center at Vancouver General Hospital and Dr. Joel Teichman's practice in St. Paul's Hospitals. Patients are monitored by a urologist (Dr. Chew, Teichman, Nigro, Dr. Fenster, or Paterson) or the research coordinator. Control patients are matched to age and sex to the study group. You will have no history of stone disease. The consent form will be provided to participants by one of the investigators or a clinical research coordinator involved in the study. This will be done in one of the urological clinics.
The associated risks are minimal; Blood draws can lead to possible bleeding, fainting, bruising, and infection. The collection of urine poses minimal risks.
Participation in this urine and serum banking will not bring any direct benefit. We assume that the information obtained will benefit and provide in the future the detection and treatment of urinary stone disease. No refunds or payments will be offered as there is no cost to patients with urine and serum storage.
All samples are coded to preserve the anonymity of the subjects. Once distributed, the samples will only be marked with the code. At no point will patients be identified, leaving the Stone Center Serum and Urine Bank.
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