Which Olympic event combines shooting and skiing?

To ski , Recreation, sports and means of transport in which you move over snow with two long, flat runners on skis, attached to shoes or shoes or tied. Competitive skiing is divided into alpine, Nordic and freestyle events. Competitions are also held at events such as speed skiing and snowboarding.

history

Skiing for transportation, hunting and war

Skiing was a prehistoric activity; The oldest known skis date from between 8000 and 7000 BC. BC And were discovered in Russia. Early skis have been found in many areas of Northern Europe: a 4,000 year old rock carving with skis has been found near the Arctic Circle in Norway, and hundreds of ski fragments 1,000 to 3,500 years old have been found in Swedish moors, Norway and Finland. Some of the early skis were short and wide and looked more like snowshoes than modern skis. Skiing was certainly not limited to Europe, though, as the first written references to skiing are from the Han Dynasty (206 BCE -220 CE) and describe skiing in northern China.

Many people who lived in snowy climates for many months of the year developed a form of skiing. TheSami (rags) were believed to be the inventors of skiing, and their use of skis for hunting had been known since Roman times. In addition, the Vikings used skis from the 9th to 11th centuries. In rural areas of Russia and the Scandinavian countries, skis are still occasionally used for travel.

Skiing has also long been employed for military purposes. Norwegian men on skis explored before the Battle of Oslo (1200). Ski troops were also deployed in Sweden in 1452, and from the 15th to 17th centuries, skis were deployed in warfare in Finland, Norway, Russia, Poland, and Sweden. Captain Jens Emmahusen wrote the first ski manual for Norwegians in 1733. There have been military ski competitions with cash prizes since 1767. These competitions may have been the forerunner of biathlon, which combines skiing and target shooting. Military skiing continued into the 20th century when snow conditions and terrain favored its use for boy scouts and a type of mounted infantry with a first strike advantage over small targets . In particular, ski troops fought in both World War I and World War II. Many veterans, particularly WWII, have been very active in promoting skiing after their return to civilian life.

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Skiing for recreation and sport

Skiing is becoming more and more popular

Skiing as both a recreation and a sport has been a natural evolution from its useful uses. One of the earliest competitions was a cross-country race in Tromsø, Norway, in 1843. In the 1860s, California had competitive straight downhill skiing on 12-foot, 12-foot, toe-strap skis (the heels were loose). The first major ski jumping took place in Christiania (now Oslo) in 1879.

However, skiing for sport in Europe developed mainly after the release of The first crossing of Greenland ( Paa-ski over Greenland ; 1890), Fridtjof Nansen's report on his trans-Greenland expedition from 1888 to 1989 on skis.

Prior to the mid-19th century, skiing was limited by the primitive bindings that only attached the ski to the boot at the tip, making it nearly impossible to ski downhill on steep slopes or slopes that required significant maneuvering. According to tradition (although now up for debate), around 1860 Norwegian Sondre Nordheim tied damp birch roots from the toe straps around the heels of his boots to anchor them firmly to his skis. After drying out, the birch roots became stiff and offered better stability and control than previous attempts with leather straps. With this innovation, modern skiing or alpine skiing with its characteristic speed and curves became possible.

At first, Alpine skiers had to ascend on foot to a height before being able to ski down, which severely limited the number of downhill runs skiers could make in a day, even if they had the energy to keep climbing back up the slope. This changed with the introduction of a succession of devices in the 1930s — from rope tows to chairlifts and gondola lifts — that eliminated exhausting climbs up the slope and made it possible for one to ski downhill four to five times more in a day than earlier skiers could manage.

With the invention and installation of ski lifts in the 1930s, Alpine skiing became an increasingly popular and common activity, first in Europe and North America and then later in Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, and Japan. In Slovenia there is a tradition of Nordic skiing going back to the 17th century, and in the 1920s and ’30s Alpine skiing was introduced there as well as in Greece, Portugal, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran. The Pyrenees, which stretch along the frontier between France and Spain, had been the scene of ski competitions before World War I, and skiers had been active in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa prior to 1914.

Television coverage of ski events, which began in the 1950s, also made a major contribution to skiing's popularity around the world. Another factor that contributed to the spread of skiing was the introduction of snowmaking systems in the late 1950s, which guaranteed vacationers enough snow in uncooperative weather.