Why didn't Islam spread to Northern Europe?
Islam in Germany
Europe could be discovered and culturally permeated when the Arab conquests destroyed the ancient Mediterranean world. The Muslims imparted the achievements of ancient and oriental scholarship to the Christians.
Dr. phil., born 1948; Professor of Medieval History at the Humboldt University in Berlin, Institute for Historical Studies; full member of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences; Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin. [email protected]
introductionSeven prisoners of war were the first Muslims in Germany. The King of Asturias captured them during his raid on Lisbon and sent them to Aachen together with their armor and mules as a gift of friendship to Charlemagne in 798. No history of Islam in Germany began with them, as the trail of forced migrants was immediately lost again. Otherwise, when Muslims came to the Carolingian courts as ambassadors or political negotiators, they only stayed briefly as travelers in places like Paderborn. The elephant that Harun ar-Raschid had brought to Charlemagne in 802 made a bigger impression than she did. The Caliph of Baghdad named the exotic animal Abu Abass after the uncle of the Prophet and founder of his own dynasty. Hardly any Franconian will have understood these connections, but the representative of a foreign and distant culture was able to considerably increase the emperor's reputation and horror. In any case, Karl took the elephant with him on his campaigns. But before his army met the Danes in 810, Abu Abass perished on the Lippe.
Only a large group of Muslim immigrants would have asked the Franks and later the Germans to solve the integration problem. But that never happened in the Middle Ages. The cultural or even ethnic interdependence was opposed by the fact that Berbers, Arabs or even Syrians found life under the climatic conditions in the north of the Pyrenees and the Alps hardly attractive. Religious reservations about migration were even more important. Experiences made by the Prophet Mohammed himself and his first followers justified the prohibition for Muslims to live under rulers of another religion. Wherever they had to pass through Christian countries while traveling, they should leave them again quickly in order to avoid the danger of apostasy. Difficult to solve was the question of how Muslims should behave after they had been subjugated by foreign powers. Legal scholars argued about this, although it was always advisable to turn your back on the countries of the unbelievers.
A cultural balance, an adjustment of living conditions or even a joint further development of their own experiences and achievements were therefore only possible for Muslims and Christians where the believers of the Koran had won the rule and, ideally, also maintained it. This is where the Muslim-Christian symbiosis differs fundamentally from the coexistence of Jews with Christians or Muslims, because Jews were everywhere in the minority and politically dependent. Military conquests by oriental associations were directed against Christianized empires, regions and populations in Europe. Violence and subjugation, which in some cases were perceived as foreign rule and which were removed again after centuries, formed the prerequisites for cultural exchange processes that Europe still lives on today.
- Can lose weight fish
- What is the safest way to inject drugs
- How to learn spoken English in India
- Are you really doing an MBA
- Where can I find a photography blogger
- What are some ways to kill microbes
- Would you help me to learn German?
- How far can a polar bear swim
- What is POJO in Java
- How trustworthy is the Exodus blockchain
- Which is the most popular presentation topic
- What is 2 2 2 2 15
- Narcissists feel inner happiness
- What is something that you are tired of eating
- How do I apply for DIT Dehradun
- What is a large diaphragm microphone
- What are anionic and nonionic surfactants
- What is positive scotoma and negative scotoma
- Life is full of drawbacks
- What is resolution 2428 in the United Nations Security Council
- Are Australians a little lazy?
- What is a subnet in your network
- Who is Ziggy Marley
- Why do we have to work together