How do event planners calculate services


1. Term: Events of all kinds that bring experience-oriented communication messages to the target group through staging, interaction between the organizer, participants and service providers as well as multi-sensory addressing. The term event describes an organized, dedicated, time-limited event in which a group of people takes part on site and / or via the media.

In colloquial language (e.g. Duden) and often also in science, events are understood as "special" events, whereby it is regularly neglected to fix (i.e. operationalize) this special feature on objective characteristics. Such a concept formation is wg for science. useless because of their lack of selectivity. If one does not want to resort to a purely enumerative definition that classifies certain types of events more or less arbitrarily as events and excludes others from them, only equating events with events of all kinds is operational. Events in this broad sense include all events from a private birthday party to a public rock concert to a business conference or a scientific congress.

In parts of the literature (cf. Freyer 1998) the term is defined even more broadly and also applied to events that are not organized by people ("natural events", e.g. natural spectacles such as a solar eclipse) and also do not serve to disseminate experience-oriented communication messages ("social / political events ", e.g. armed conflicts). Such a concept formation would also be inoperational and therefore inexpedient, because the diversity of the phenomena that can be assigned to the concept would be so great that similarities would hardly be identifiable. A solar eclipse should therefore not be understood as an event; an event that is held on the occasion of such a solar eclipse, on the other hand, does.

2. Constitutive characteristics (special features of events): Events differ from other communication instruments in particular in the following three characteristics:
a) Staging: Events are artificially created events, organized by people for people. You consciously stand out from the everyday reality of the participants and activate them through the offered variety. You address target groups in unusual situations. (Understood in this sense, a "peculiarity" of events can also be objectively justified and accepted as a definition, see 1.) Even if they serve commercial purposes, these situations are generally recognized by the participants because of their unusual nature. d. Usually perceived as non-commercial.
b) Interactivity: Events are a platform for personal encounters between the organizer and the participants, but also between the participants. Events involve the participants in the action; they are always co-products of the organizer and participants (and the service providers involved; event industry). This special feature of events corresponds to the integration and transformation of external factors in the context of service production. The event experience (as a time-related product and output of the event production) arises from the cooperation of all those involved. The participants act as "prosumers", i.e. as consumers and (co-) producers of the event experience in one person. The interactivity of events places high demands on event management. It is not only the entire processes and contact points for the individual participants that have to be managed, but also group dynamic processes that arise from the interaction between the organizer and the participants, but also between the participants.
c) Multi-sensor technology: Events convert communication messages into multi-sensory experiences and potentially address all of the participants' senses through physical stimuli: seeing (visual stimuli: e.g. light, images, video clips); Hearing (auditory stimuli: language, music, noises); Touch / feel (haptic stimuli: e.g. surface structure during a product demonstration; thermal stimuli: e.g. room temperature); Taste (gustatory stimuli: e.g. catering, tasting); Smell (olfactory stimuli: e.g. catering, location). In the ideal case of addressing all the senses, events are "total communication" (Belz / Reinhold). They enable a particularly comprehensive and impressive experience of communication messages, brands, companies and their products.

Thanks to the multi-sensory approach, event participants are activated more than average compared to other communication instruments and are particularly receptive to the event messages. There is therefore justified reason for the (not yet fully proven) hypothesis that event messages are remembered longer on average than is the case with communication instruments that only address one or two senses (e.g. advertisements, TV spots, etc.) ).

3. Typology (types of events): Events can be divided into commercial and non-commercial events. Non-commercial events are e.g. private parties, church services and charity events. This group is not considered further here. Commercial events A distinction can be made between events as a salable product and events as a marketing instrument. a) Events as a salable product: Such events are usually marketed as service products for a fee - admission, participation fee, etc. Examples are sports and cultural events as well as trade fairs.

An important subgroup are educational events, e.g. conferences, symposia, meetings, seminars, workshops. They are used for training and further education and general knowledge transfer (to be distinguished from the passing on of pure information. Often educational events are offered free of charge; this happens for various reasons: voluntary, based on traditions and conventions (e.g. scientific congresses) or by law because of or for political reasons (e.g. free university entrance). Nevertheless, educational events are in principle chargeable and would also be chargeable under other circumstances, which is why their membership of category a) is fundamentally out of the question.
b) Events as a marketing tool: Such events are not themselves a product, but an instrument of communication policy for marketing other products. Marketing events are in-house events of an organization (company, association, etc.), which are carried out by it for the purpose of achieving its own marketing and communication goals.

Marketing events take various forms. According to the respective main purpose, a distinction can be made:
(1) Motivation events: e.g. incentives for employees / for trading partners, team building events, kick-off meetings, field service conferences, company celebrations (anniversaries, ceremonies, galas);
(2) Information events: press conferences, shareholder events (e.g. general meetings), stakeholder events (e.g. "open days");
(3) Sales promotion events ("promotional events"): e.g. product presentations, road shows, all sales promotion campaigns at the point of sale, dealer and in-house exhibitions;
(4) Sponsoring events: own events as part of sports, cultural, social, eco-sponsoring commitments, e.g. a customer reception at a sponsored exhibition opening or an autograph session with sponsored sports stars for the company's own employees;
(5) Trade fair events: In-house events as part of trade fairs organized by third parties (e.g. events on your own stand or in the vicinity of the trade fair). Dealer and in-house fairs are not part of the trade fair events, but rather the (self-organized) sales promotion events.

Other typologies of marketing events are common, but often inconsistent with regard to the classification criterion. The "Forum Marketing Event Agencies" (FME) differentiates between 1. "Consumer Events" (B2C Events), 2. "Corporate Events" (B2B Events), 3. "Exhibition Events" (trade fair and exhibition events, ds depending on the type of trade fair B2C and / or B2B events), 4. "Employee events" (B2B events), 5. "Charity / Social / Cultural Events" (depending on the event, B2C or B2B events) and 6. "Public Events" (ditto).

4. Legal Aspects: Events are contracts for work and services. A "certain performance" or the appearance of certain people in an event are not owed, but professional organization (including compliance with general and special contractual traffic safety obligations), allocation of seats according to the admission ticket and implementation, etc. are owed. Failures of services, poor services lead to claims according to §§ 633 ff. BGB (reduction, self-help, withdrawal, compensation). In the event of ("free") termination (or even the simple non-visit due to prevention) by the customer, Section 649 of the German Civil Code (BGB) applies, according to which the organizer (contractor) can demand remuneration (minus savings or other income, e.g. by selling the returned tickets ). Admission tickets legitimize the visitor to admission and the organizer to perform (cf. § 807 BGB). They can be passed on to others on a regular basis, unless special circumstances apply.