Why was biotechnology included in engineering

New advances in biotechnology

Milestones

April 2021 EFSA provides an overview of the risk assessment of plants that have been developed using new genomic techniques (NGT). NGT are techniques that are capable of altering the genetic material of one and that have emerged or been developed over the past two decades. The report is part of a study that the Council of the European Union commissioned from the European Commission. In preparing the report, EFSA took into account its previous scientific opinions on the subject as well as opinions published by competent authorities and national institutions since 2012.

February 2021 EFSA assesses whether the existing guidelines for the molecular characterization and environmental risk assessment of GM plants are appropriate and sufficient for the risk assessment of synthetic biology (SynBio) plants intended for cultivation or use as food and feed .

The GMO- Panel concluded that EFSA's guidance on SynBio products to be developed over the next decade is appropriate and sufficient, although specific requirements may not apply to all products. The experts acknowledged that as SynBio products evolve, it may be necessary to update the guidelines to ensure that they are appropriate and sufficient for the risk assessment of plants manipulated with SynBio.

November 2020 Experts evaluate whether the conclusions of the 2012 Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of plants developed using zinc finger 3 and other site-directed nucleases with a similar function are applicable to plants grown with type 1 and 2 site-directed nucleases and with Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (genome editing techniques that modify a specific region of the genome without introducing new ones) were developed.

The experts conclude that the existing guide is applicable for the evaluation of the three new techniques. However, less data may be required for risk assessment as no new DNA is introduced.

November 2020 EFSA assesses whether the existing guidelines for the risk assessment of genetically modified animals are suitable for the molecular characterization and environmental risk assessment of insects modified by Gene Drive. EFSA's experts conclude that the guidelines are appropriate. However, additional guidance is needed for some areas, such as molecular characterization, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring.

in the October 2020 EFSA publishes a scientific opinion on the adequacy of existing guidance documents for risk assessment against the background of developments in synthetic biology (SynBio) for microorganisms.

The experts have come to the conclusion that the existing guidance documents - for microbial characterization and environmental risk assessment - are useful as a basis for essential parts of the risk assessment. However, they recommended the creation of further guidance documents in specific risk areas, e.g. B. the molecular characterization of microalgae and fungi, and approaches for the procedure in all specific risk areas according to Directive 2001/18 / EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms into the environment.

2012 EFSA prepares two opinions on cisgenesis / intragenesis and zinc finger nuclease 3 and other targeted nucleases in which it assesses the potential risks of these techniques and the applicability of the existing EFSA guidance documents to GM plants for their risk assessment.

The experts conclude that the existing guidance documents for the evaluation of food and feed products made from plants that have been modified using these techniques and for carrying out an environmental risk assessment are applicable and do not need to be further developed.