Can cut electromagnetic waves into radio waves

What are electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic waves we can imagine similar to the waves in the sea, only that we cannot see them and that they consist of electromagnetic energy. Since the strengths of this energy or electrical and magnetic fields change both temporally and spatially, they are referred to as waves.

Now the question is, how do such electromagnetic waves come about? First of all, let's find a starting point. This can be a dipole, for example, in which the direction of the current flow and the strength can be changed. When the strength in the dipole is at its highest point, a magnetic field is created around it. This magnetic field has the same direction as the current flow. Within one oscillation, the current flow goes back completely to zero twice, which means that the charge carriers within the dipole collect at the respective ends and the electric field lines migrate from the positive to the negative end. If the polarity of the dipole is reversed, the electric field weakens and the magnetic field builds up again. In the end, this means that magnetic and electrical oscillations occur alternately. One also speaks of an electromagnetic alternating field. In addition, it is precisely this alternating field that can detach itself from its dipole, which means that it propagates at the speed of light. That is then our electromagnetic wave.

However, there are different types of electromagnetic waves: radio waves, microwaves, X-rays, cell phone radiation, even the light itself. They can be described by characteristics that are very similar to the waves in water. These are the following:

  • wavelength
  • Period - the time interval between one and the next wave
  • Reflection - the electromagnetic waves can be reflected on surfaces
  • Refraction - it is said that an electromagnetic wave breaks when it passes from one medium to another, this moment is the refraction
  • Diffraction - if the waves hit an obstacle while they are propagating, they will continue anyway; this is referred to as bending in the wave
  • Interference - two different electromagnetic waves can cross their paths and thus interfere with each other

Of course you can also calculate these waves mathematically. For this purpose, the Maxwell's equations which show us how the oscillating electronic and magnetic fields relate to each other.

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