Why would anyone visit Halifax UK
The Halifax Peace
The Halifax Peace
The Halifax Peace:
|Reason for the discrepancy: |
After Chamberlain's resignation, it is not Winston Churchill who will become Prime Minister, but Lord Halifax ...
|Time of the deviation: May 9, 1940|
Brief information about timeline:
After the occupation of Poland, Denmark and the devastating German attack on Norway, Prime Minister Arthur Neville Chamberlain lost all support in the government. Now the only option for him was resignation. He had two possible successors, Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax or Churchill, known as a hardliner. They did not want to incur even more losses and saw a more peaceful foreign policy as the only chance to come to an amicable agreement in the conflict with the German Reich ...
I actually wanted to write an epilogue at the end, but I'll do it in the form of a foreword. This timeline will deal with the Nazi era, but this will not lead to a world war as we know it. I distance myself from National Socialist ideas because Nazi Germany and some of its crimes will exist for a while longer in this timeline than in UZL. I am of the opinion that Hitler did not want war as it developed in UZL, but rather would have carried out his plans without confrontation with Great Britain. There are some scenarios or timelines here in the wiki that describe the total victory of Nazi Germany over Europe and even the Americans. I don't want to write such a timeline here because I believe that Germany never had a chance to invade America or to conquer the world. The best way to successfully carry out his plans would be a victory or peace with Britain and better relations with overseas. Although Hitler went mad in UZL to attack the Russians in the middle of the war against the British, I don't think this was Hitler's preferred option. This article describes a possible scenario in which Hitler partially wins but also the later problems. The post-war plans of the Nazis and a possible Cold War are presented. This article does not serve to glorify National Socialism, it should show what we were spared. I'm going to put this timeline in the list for Cold War and World War 3 because I think it fits in better than World War II.
1938/1940 - prehistory:
1938; Hitler's Germany had been upgrading for five years. The situation between the victorious powers of World War I and the Germans had changed significantly since 1918. The armament of the German Reich was already obvious, the Rhineland had been militarized for two years and Adolf Hitler wanted to see how far he could hang out of the window towards the British and French. Urgent questions of the time were the formerly German areas that were now Polish, and the German minority areas in Czechoslovakia.
Germany insisted on restoring the borders of the old German Empire from 1914.
Some saw it as a legitimate wish, a right of Germany, while others wanted to prevent this. The ideological enemy of National Socialism, communism in the form of the Soviet Union, kept just as quiet as democratic England. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain ruled London. Chamberlain's foreign policy towards Germany consisted of a policy of appeasement; he underestimated the potential of Hitler and the Wehrmacht. With the Anschluss of Austria in March 1938, Hitler had already ignored the Anschluss ban imposed by the victorious powers. Except for fascist Italy and Mexico, there was no one who criticized the Anschluss particularly. But the League of Nations was unable to do anything and Benito Mussolini's Italy was an ally of Hitler anyway. (Steel Pact) Germany's next step was to demand the Sudeten areas in Moravia. In theory, Czechoslovakia had a leader in the Soviet Union, but nothing came of it. France and England then made it clear to the Czechoslovaks that they would not receive any rifle aid in the event of a German invasion. Hitler was thus in a position of power, for him it looked as if the western allies had given in.
Stalin in Moscow was not ready to help Czechoslovakia either, so an agreement was reached in Munich. On the night of September 29th to 30th, 1938, Hitler, Chamberlain, France's Prime Minister Édouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini met in Munich to decide on the Sudetenland. This decision over the head of the Czechoslovak government in Prague was an unprecedented triumph for German expansion. Hitler finally saw that the hated victorious powers gave in. On March 15-16, 1939, the Wehrmacht marched into the Sudeten areas. But contrary to what France and England expected, the goal was now to completely smash Czechoslovakia. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain now recognized his misjudgment, he had believed Hitler would only bring the Germans home, but instead came the destruction of a country. After that, the course was set for war, and Great Britain refused to tolerate another breach of international law. Germany's pact policy seemed opaque to the West, so Hitler forged a German-Polish friendship treaty and a non-aggression pact with Josef Stalin. Was this a ruse to make Stalin feel that he and the Soviet Union had nothing to fear? For Adolf Hitler it had been clear for at least 10 years that he wanted to annex the East in order to gain habitat. On September 1, 1939, the Wehrmacht invaded Poland. This time the British government decided not to give in, Hitler had believed he could just act as with the Sudetes, but the Chamberlain cabinet stood firm. This was the beginning of a European war that had not occurred since World War I. With a lot of luck, the Wehrmacht also succeeded in taking Poland from the superior armed forces and tactics.
That England and France now entered the war was not wanted for Germany.
A secret pact existed between Hitler and Stalin, and Stalin's tanks now rolled over the Polish border and cut a piece of the flesh of the Polish republic. Poland was to be used for the planned eastward expansion of Germany; the Polish Jews were rounded up in the first few weeks. Great Britain's contribution was the formation of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Four divisions were supposed to calm the European conflict. However, the hitherto limited conflict quickly spread to the Netherlands and Belgium from the "Yellow Case". These German attacks were carried out before the "Weis case" (Poland attack) was over, and France was also the target of German aggression. The Allied plan to repel the Germans was more than flawed. The intervention turned out to be a "Sitzkrieg" which was something like the opposite of the "Blitzkrieg". The British forces were neither flexible nor well organized, nor was the command structure well organized. The fact that the troops remained passive instead of attacking was ultimately only used by the German Wehrmacht. In British politics, it was previously of the opinion that the impending war had been postponed for a year and that they were better prepared. But in truth it would only be of use to Germany, if the war had broken out in 1938 the Wehrmacht would be in a much worse position. In January 1940, heavy snowfall in France prevented German action. In the winter of 1939/1940 there were a total of around five British divisions in France. In London they went completely mobile and switched to the war economy. As a result, there were strikes because of the extra work, but the German submarine war also worsened the situation. In early May 1940, the Norwegian debate split the government. The Germans had occupied Norway before Denmark. Black seers now believed that peace was absolutely necessary and that there was hardly any other means to end this unhappy war. It was also believed that Hitler was now more in a donor mood than when he had expanded across Europe. Chamberlain's government (1937-1940) was now under pressure to act, so the head of government resigned from his official duties on May 9, 1940. This is where the timeline begins, on the day of resignation in the hour of the decision.
May 9, 1940 - Decision Day:
The resignation of the chancellor came as no surprise, the Norway champagne was a failure. There was a hail of accusations from all sides. The liberals, but also their own conservative party comrades, accused Chamberlain's staff of ineptitude. Now there were two candidates within the Conservative Party who could fill the office of Prime Minister: Winson Churchill and Edward Frederick Lindley Wood (Lord Halifax) Both had a history and were rivals within the party. Churchill was considered a political opportunist who lost a lot of political influence in his "years in the wilderness" from 1930 onwards. He was one of the critics of Indian separatism. The fact that Lord Halifax was Viceroy of India from 1926 to 1931 further hardened the fronts. As Foreign Minister in the Chamberlain government, Halifax was largely responsible for the catastrophic situation.
It was considered soft, but the empire was very disaffected with the war and hardly anyone would have anything against a ceasefire. Seen in this way, both statesmen had a reason not to stand. Churchill, who always proposed to take action against the Soviet Union together with Germany, was just as wrong as Halifax was wrong with his indulgence. But here in May the lives of the British expeditionary forces were at stake. In total there were now 3rd Corps, each with 3 divisions and other military units in northern France. There was now also the question of whether participation in the “Second Franco-German War” is actually necessary. It had not yet been decided that the war would continue, but Halifax was increasingly favored during the session marathon that followed. Churchill the warmonger, and avowed enemy of the Nazis, was no longer considered. He would have put Great Britain in a position that made no return possible, peace would hardly be possible under Churchill. That is why the Conservative Party chose Halifax. If possible, he should bring the war to a satisfactory conclusion. The fact that Churchill was an excellent Minister of the Navy in times of war (World War I) ensured that he did not go away empty-handed. But Churchill had to subordinate his wishes to the new unified policy. This also meant that Churchill's political friends were not necessarily accepted into the government. Churchill grudgingly agreed to support the new Prime Minister Halifax as Secretary of Defense. On May 10, the decision was finally made public, the new Prime Minister was Lord Halifax.
1940 - Operation Dynamo and exit from the war:
Germany's advances in the Benelux region on Belgium and the Netherlands had largely proceeded at the request of the German high command. On May 13-15, 1940, Heinz Guderian's tanks managed to break through near Sedan.The aim of the German war machine was to wipe out the British-French-Belgian forces on the continent. Soon after May 15, the British and French Army units had to withdraw. The battle for Sedan was lost and the Royal Army was to flee to their home island via Dunkirk. Great Britain's Prime Minister Halifax had reserved the foreign policy resort for himself and had early secret negotiations with the German leadership. The military leadership of a Winston Churchill and Marshall Gort had no influence on the peace effort. The evacuation of British troops, also known as Operation Dynamo, began on May 26th. About 340,000 soldiers including 100,000 French were to be evacuated. However, the Halifax government came to the conclusion that the chaotic rescue at Dunkirk would result in too many victims, fearing the failure of the entire national professional army. For this reason there was a meeting between Lord Hailfax and Joachim von Ribbentrop. The German Foreign Minister guaranteed the British the free withdrawal of troops and an associated ceasefire. This offer was tied to a later peace, on May 28, 1940 the German-British armistice came into force. It lasted until June 7th, so the English were able to leave the European continent in an orderly manner. Shortly afterwards the acts of war continued in France. Due to the armistice, there were no air strikes on rescue troops during the largest rescue operation ever organized, around 100,000 British soldiers were able to re-enter English homeland by June 7th. The return of the troops was a propaganda success for the fascists. The event was shown in German newsreels as evidence of Hitler's will for peace. The fascists also waved their flags in London, and Oswald Mosley's Fascist Union also spoke out in favor of peace with Germany. Shortly after the "rescue of Dunkirk", official peace talks took place in Berlin in which both Halifax and Hitler positioned themselves as winners. The meeting was called "victory of peace", but Winston Churchill stayed in England. Hitler triumphed because he had gambled high and ultimately played his trump cards. The peace of Berlin brought about a non-aggression pact for 10 years and a bilateral declaration of neutrality. The German Reich and Great Britain signed the Hitler-Halifax Pact. An issue in addition to language was the fight against Bolshevism of the Soviet Union. Hitler wanted the British in his anti-Comintern pact. In secret, Adolf Hitler already had the plan to attack the Soviet Union. But there was still no war plan (Barbarossa case in this ZL Hammerrschlag Fritz) Hitler's hopes to convince the British to join a future fight against Stalin failed in the beginning. Hailfax was ready for peace and neutrality, but not for any “Nazi war plans”. But London, as Hitler knew from other sources, was not friendly to Stalin. The war in France only lasted until June 24th and ended with the surrender of France. This ended the so-called Second Franco-German War. From the capitulation of France, the fascist Vichy France was formed. Peace in Europe also calmed the USA, but the US government now took a skeptical position towards Great Britain. Political relations between London and Washington cooled because Franklin D. Roosevelt was not so convinced that Hitler would be indulgent. His government's hands were tied as there were a large number of opponents of an intervention, but Roosevelt personally rejected Hitler's National Socialism. Winston Churchill also saw British politics as a failure, for him it was clear that as Minister of War and Defense he could no longer achieve anything. Although he could gain a lot from the German proposal for an anti-Comintern pact, Churchill remained suspicious of Germany. He was now of the opinion that such a pact only served to expand the territory of the German Reich and would ultimately lead to World War II. In 1940, the peace of Halifax had maneuvered the world by another world war by a hair's breadth.
June - October 1940 - War and Peace in South Asia:
While the world war almost broke out in Europe, South Asia had been the scene of the Second Sino-Japanese War since 1937. The aggressor Japan belongs to the anti-Comintern and is therefore against communism. Various warlords and communist rebels ruled China in the 1930s.
Triggered by the incident at the Marco Polo Bridge on July 7, 1937, the war had raged for three years. At the beginning of the conflict, the USA remained neutral, but after the Japanese had surrounded the Kuomintang capital Nanking and the US gunboat Panay was sunk during the evacuation of American citizens, the mood against Japan changed. Later war crimes against the helpless Chinese civilian population froze US-Japan relations to the ground.
The fact that Japan also seized the French protectorate Annam in Southeast Asia after September 1, 1939 during the Second Franco-Prussian War soon led to an oil embargo and a US trade freeze. In the summer of 1940 the French colonies were occupied, but the war in Europe is now over. Japan's policy remained aggressive, the aim of the empire was to build an East Asian sphere of prosperity in which Japan would have supremacy. In fact, Japan claimed the entire Pacific region. There were deeper negotiations between Germany, Italy and Japan about the expansion of the anti-Comintern pact. In contrast to the UZL, Germany no longer wanted to provoke the Allies (British and Americans) and there was no longer any war in Europe. German alliance policy had changed after the Hitler-Halifax Pact. From September 27, 1940, the new Axis Pact existed between the great powers, but on the part of Germany it was only directed against the Soviet Union and Bolshevism. Japan and Germany therefore preferred to support themselves in the event of war against communism, but not against western powers.Hitler did not want to jeopardize the pact because he had made with Great Britain, because the planning work for an invasion of the Soviet Union had begun. Germany wanted to prevent a two-front war, which is why its neutrality was made clear to Tokyo. In the struggle against international communism, however, there was extensive intelligence cooperation. South Asia and China remained war zones, and in order to support the Japanese, German free corps consisting of voluntary members of the Wehrmacht arrived in China in October. Japan was dependent on supplies of raw materials from the European powers, so efforts were made to get on well with Great Britain and America again. The biggest problem was the United States' oil embargo. In Japan it was hoped that the US government would change course, because 1940 was election year, so there was a possibility that a new man would soon be seated in the White House who would no longer boycott the Japanese economy. Due to a lack of raw materials, Japan had to hand over the Olympic Games to Helsinki, where they finally took place. An enormous loss of face for the empire. The British weren't exactly eager for war either, but Japan's expansion didn't give London the feeling of having a reliable interlocutor. That is why the Halifax government kept an eye on the Japanese as an opposing power. However, there was no alliance with Washington because the Americans did not trust the British even 5 months after the end of the Second Franco-German War. Because the US government accused London of treason. Free France had collapsed due to the German occupation "peacekeepers" and its leader, General Charles de Gaulle, was executed on October 12th. Hitler then boasted that he had restored the unity of France and brokered peace between Japan and the colonies. The area of what is now Vietnam became part of the Japanese Empire. The League of Nations had tried to mediate in France as well as in Asia, but it was doomed to failure. Japan left in 1933, the US never joined. A dark hour for the League of Nations, Adolf Hitler declared on October 23 that an institution like the League of Nations was absolutely unnecessary and helpless. In Great Britain, too, there were already serious doubts about the usefulness of the League of Nations, especially in view of the South Asian conflict.
November 1940 - US presidential election:USA 1940; With President Roosevelt's Great Deal, the United States managed to overcome the depression of the early 1930s. The nation was slowly recovering from the economic crisis. The president is extremely popular and is in his second term. There was still no regulation regulating the number of terms of office, but until then it was traditionally so that no president administered more than two. Within the Democratic Party of America there were voices that said Roosevelt should add another term because he is good for the country. But Vice President John Nance Garner disagreed, and the party almost split.
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