What is the nerve tissue

Nerve tissue

English: nervous tissue

1 definition

Nerve tissue is one of the four basic tissues of the human body. It forms the basis of the nervous system. Its job is to transmit signals between different body structures.

2 structure

Nerve tissue consists of two classes of cells:

  • Neurons (nerve cells): They are responsible for the actual signal transmission.
  • Glial cells: in their entirety, they form the neuroglia and are responsible, among other things, for nourishing the nerve cells.

Glial cells and neurons form a tight functional unit in the nervous system.

3 regeneration

Compared to other types of tissue, nerve tissue is only able to regenerate to a limited extent because neurons are post-mitotic cells that can no longer divide. It is therefore a permanent tissue.

In the adult brain, cell replacement is ensured by neuronal stem cells that are not yet differentiated and that can form neuroblasts and young neurons. They are located in the hippocampus and in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The replacement cells can migrate from the SVZ to other regions of the brain and make contact there with existing groups of neurons. The scope of the renewal is, however, severely limited by the complex processes. If there is extensive loss of brain matter - e.g. through a cerebral infarction - the defect is healed, in which the nerve tissue is replaced by glial cells.