How long is vegetable oil good for

Which fat for what?

Dipl. Oec. troph. Andrea Barth

It's better to paint yourself butter or margarine on bread? Should coconut oil or olive oil be in the frying pan? And what do you use for the salad? Read about which fat is best for which occasion.

The huge range of edible fats and oils has already puzzled many consumers. Because some fats can be heated, others not, others should be healthier and some should be left standing. But choosing the right fat isn't quite as complicated as it seems. In principle, you can use anything for the cold kitchen cold pressed virgin cooking oil use. Whether you are now butter or margarine Spread on bread is up to your taste. Butter is a relatively natural fat and is preferred by many for its taste. Animal fat has its bad reputation due to its high content of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. But if you only spread butter thinly on bread and only use it sparingly, you don't have to feel guilty. In addition, a quarter of the saturated fatty acids consists of so-called MCT fats (medium and short-chain fatty acids), which are nutritionally more positive.

Prefer organic margarine

The high content of harmful Trans fatty acids, which was to blame for the bad reputation of margarine, has been greatly reduced by changing the manufacturing process and is now hardly an issue. However, some conventional margarine is still partially chemically hardened and therefore also contains trans fatty acids. If you still prefer margarine, you should use unhardened products with a high proportion of native cold press oil - preferably in organic quality. The vegetable fat spread does not contain any cholesterol. But be careful: butter and margarine do not differ in fat content. Even the term diet margarine does not necessarily indicate a reduced fat content. This information only refers to the fact that margarine, due to its vegetable origin, brings mainly unsaturated fatty acids to the plate and is low in sodium.

High-quality vegetable oils with monounsaturated and / or polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly suitable for salads. In addition to fat-soluble vitamins, they also contain essential fatty acids that our body cannot produce itself, and health-promoting substances such as phytosterols. Instead of sunflower or corn oil, you should use rapeseed, linseed or walnut oil more often, as these have a high content of omega-3 fatty acids. But only when cold-pressed and native do they contain plenty of natural flavorings. Therefore, they add more flavor to the food at the same time, which supports a fat-conscious diet. Because the more intense an oil tastes, the less you use it. Anyone who uses organic goods here generally does not have to fear any undesirable residues such as pesticides.

However, heat can destroy some of the valuable fatty acids and vitamins. If fats and oils are heated too high, harmful and in some cases carcinogenic decomposition products can arise. However, you can use the previously mentioned edible fats and oils for stewing and cooking. Because temperatures of up to 100 ° C are harmless. To ensure that the fats do not get too hot, it is advisable to add a little water to the oil before heating it. In the case of cooked food, you should only add fat at the end of the actual cooking process. This is the best way to preserve the valuable ingredients. You can also use native oils, margarine and butter for baking. Because despite higher baking temperatures, the inside of the food only gets around 100 ° C.

Heat oil: Not all cooking oils like heat

Only a few fats survive the temperatures that arise during frying and deep-frying without damage. At least around 180 ° C is reached when deep-frying and around 200 ° C when frying in the pan. Searing steaks or preparations in the wok can cause the temperature to rise even higher. This is why fats are in demand here that do not have a problem with heat. These are fats with a high smoke point. This describes the temperature at which a fat starts to smell sticky and to decompose. The more saturated fatty acids or monounsaturated oleic acid a fat contains, the higher the smoke point. native olive oil is heat stable up to 180 ° C. Because it consists of around 15-20 percent saturated fatty acids and around 75 percent of monounsaturated oleic acid. So it is suitable for gentle roasting and deep-frying. Rapeseed oil At 60 percent, it also has a relatively high oleic acid content and is therefore more heat-resistant in its native form than other native oils. Therefore, rapeseed oil is also suitable for more intense heating.

Heat oil: cold pressed and stable

For roasting, however, you should use so-called High oleic oils that the organic trade offers. These are oils from special sunflower, rapeseed and thistle varieties that have been cultivated to have a higher oleic acid content. They are cold-pressed, but can withstand temperatures of up to 210 ° C, i.e. roasting heat. High oleic oils are treated with steam after pressing, but in contrast to extracted and refined oils from conventional production, they still contain natural coloring and flavoring substances. Even (partially refined) coconut oil, palm oil and refined palm kernel oil treated with steam can withstand such temperatures. The fats naturally have a very high proportion of saturated fatty acids and are therefore solid. However, coconut and palm kernel fat are not recommended for ecological reasons due to the heavy processing and also because of the very long transport routes. In contrast to butter, clarified butter is also good for the hot kitchen. Because it consists of 99.8 percent pure butter fat. But you shouldn't expect clarified butter to exceed around 170 ° C.
In the opinion of Dr. Christian Gertz from the Chemical Investigation Office in Hagen, not necessary. In contrast to refined oils, native oils still contain valuable plant ingredients such as phytosterols, which protect the oil against decay for a long time when it is hot. Gertz recommends mixing equal parts pure olive oil, cold-pressed rapeseed oil and normal sunflower oil. In addition, when deep-frying, it is sufficient to heat the fat to 160 ° C instead of the usual 180 ° C. Potatoes and the like do not fry any faster due to higher temperatures. This is because the temperature on the surface of the food is generally only around 100 ° C.

Online version of:
Barth A .: UGB-FORUM Special, Whole Foods Nutrition 2008, pp. 27-28
Photo: Arbeitskreis Omega-3 e. V.