Sambhaji was braver than Shivaji

- 200 - Notes 1. Chapter The Violence of Illusion 1. Langston Hughes, I throw my net out, Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagsanstalt 1963, pp. 7, 12. 2. See Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: ​​The Collapse and the Revival of the American Community, New York: Simon & Schuster 2000. 3. There is a lot of empirical evidence that ethnocentrism does not necessarily go hand in hand with xenophobia; see, for example, Elizabeth Cashdan, "Ethnocentrism and Xenophobia: A Cross-cultural Study", Current Anthropology 42 (2001). Nevertheless, the excessive exploitation of ethnic, religious, racial and other selective loyalties has in many cases led to violence against other groups. The crucial problem here is the susceptibility to "solitarian" incitement. 4. Jean-Paul Sartre, "Reflections on the Jewish Question", in: Jean-Paul Sartre, Three Essays, Frankfurt and others: Ullstein 1973. 5. The Merchant of Venice, III.1. 6. See Alan Ryan, J.S. Mill, London: Routledge 1974, p. 125. Mill noted that his views on women's suffrage were interpreted as "my whims": John Stuart Mill, Autobiography, 1874; Oxford reprint: Oxford University Press 1971, p. 169. 7. Samuel P. Huntington, Clash of Cultures. The reshaping of world politics in the 21st century. Munich, Vienna: Europa-Verlag 1996. 8. Quoted in International Herald Tribune, August 27, 2004, pp. 6. 9. This question is discussed in Chapters 4 and 8. Chapter 2 What does identity mean? 1. VS Naipaul, In den alten Sklavenstaat, Cologne: Kiepenheuer and Witsch 1990. 2. See also Leon Wieseltier, Against Identity, New York: Drenttel 1996. - 201 - 3. See my book On Ethics and Economics, Oxford: Blackwell 1987 4. I have rudimentarily discussed the intellectual limitations of this figure, peculiarly constructed by some mainstream economists, in Rational Fools: A Critique of the Behavioral Foundations of Economic Theory, Philosophy and Public Affairs 6 (1977), reprinted in Choice, Welfare and Measurement, Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press 1997, and in Jane J. Mansbridge, ed., Beyond Self-Interest, Chicago: Chicago University Press 1990. 5. See George Akerlof, An Economic Theorist's Book of Tales, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1984; Shira Lewin, "Economics and Psychology: Lessons for Our Own Day from the Early 20th Century," Journal of Economic Literature 34 (1996); Christine Jolls, Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler, "A Behavioral Approach to Law and Economics," Stanford Law Review 50 (1998); Matthew Rabin, A Perspective on Psychology and Economics, European Economic Review 46 (2002); Amartya Sen, Rationality and Freedom, Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press 2002, essays 1-5; Roland Benabou and Jean Tirole, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation”, Review of Economic Studies 70 (2003). 6. See inter alia George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton, "Economics and Identity," Quarterly Journal of Economics 63 (2000); John B. Davis, The Theory of the Individual in Economics: Identity and Value, London, New York: Routledge 2003; Alan Kirman and Miriam Teschl, “On the Emergence of Economic Identity”, Revue de Philosophie Économique 9 (2004); George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton, "Identity and the Economics of Organizations," Journal of Economic Perspectives 19 (2005). 7. See Jörgen Weibull, Evolutionary Game Theory, Cambridge, Mass .: MIT Press 1995; Jean Tirole, “Rational Irrationality: Some Economics of Self-management”, European Economic Review 46 (2002). 8. Karl Marx, "Critique of the Gothaer Program", in: Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels - Works, Vol. 19, Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 4th Edition 1973, pp. 13–32, here p. 21. 9. Pierre Bourdieu, Sociological Questions, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp 1993. 10. EM Forster, Two Cheers for Democracy, London: E. Arnold 1951. 11. On the relationship between self and community see the illuminating analyzes by Charles Taylor, Quellen des Selbst. The Origin of Modern Identity, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp 1996, and Philosophical Arguments, Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press, 1995. See also Will Kymlicka's insightful assessment of these and related questions in Political Philosophy Today. An introduction, Frankfurt: Campus-Verlag 1996. 12. For communitarian objections to liberal theories of justice, see in particular Michael Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1982, 1998; Michael Walzer, Sphären der Gerechtigkeit, Frankfurt: Campus-Verlag 1992; Charles Taylor, "Cross-Purposes: The Liberal-Communitarian Debate," in: Nancy L. Rosenblum, ed., Liberalism and the Moral Life, Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press 1989. See also John Rawls' response to criticism his theory of justice on the part of Sandels and others in Justice as Fairness: Political Not Metaphysical, Philosophy and Public Affairs 14 (1985), and Political Liberalism, New York: Columbia University Press 1993, to which Sandel appeared in 1998 Edition of Liberalism and the Limits of Justice responds. Helpful comments on these heated debates can be found in Will Kymlicka, Political Philosophy Today, Chapter 6; Michael Walzer, The Communitarian Critique of Liberalism, Political Theory 18 (1990); Stephen Muthall and Adam Swift, Liberals and Communitarians, Oxford: Blackwell 1992, 1996. My doubts about communitarian criticism of theories of justice are presented in Reason Before Identity, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1999. 13. On this and related problems, see Frédérique Apffel Marglin and Stephen A. Marglin, eds., Dominating Knowledge, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1993. 14. The role of contradiction and argument in Indian tradition is discussed in my book The Argumentative Indian, London: Allen Lane; New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux 2005. 15. Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, pp. 150-16. The ethics of identity is crucial precisely because of the inevitable choices about the priorities among our many affiliations; see Kwame Anthony Appiah's beautiful analysis in The Ethics of Identity, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2005. See also Amin Maalouf, In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong, New York: Arcade Publishing 2001. Chapter 3 Trapped in Culture 1. Samuel P. Huntington, Clash of Cultures. The reorganization of world politics in the 21st century, Munich, Vienna: Europa-Verlag 1996. 2. I discuss some of the topics dealt with here in detail in The Argumentative Indian, London: Allen Lane; New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux 2005. 3. I discuss the multireligious and multicultural history of India in The Argumentative Indian. 4. Huntington, Kampf der Kulturen, p. 103. 5. Oswald Spengler, Der Untergang des Abendlandes, Munich: Beck 1921, p. 440. 6. See Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697, trans. by W. G. Aston, Tokyo: Tuttle 1972, pp. 128-133. 7. See Nakamura Hajime, "Basic Features of the Legal, Political, and Economic Thought of Japan," in Charles A. Moore, ed., The Japanese Mind: Essentials of Japanese Philosophy and Culture, Tokyo: Tuttle 1973, 144 8. As we learn from Flavius ​​Arrian, Alexander reacted to this egalitarian accusation with the same admiration that he had shown during his encounter with Di- - 203 - genes, but his behavior did not change as a result («the exact opposite of what he pretended to admire at the time »). See Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 BC: A Historical Biography, Berkeley: University of California Press 1992, p. 428. 9. Alexis de Tocqueville, About Democracy in America, Stuttgart: Reclam 1985, p. 15 f 10. Nelson Mandela, The Long Road to Freedom, Hamburg: Spiegel-Verlag 2006, p. 35. 11. The importance of printing for public discourse is discussed in my book The Argumentative Indian, pp. 82 f., 182 ff Chapter 4 Religious Affiliations and Muslim History 1. Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, trans. by J. F. P. Hopkins, edited and annotated by N. Levtzion and J. F. P. Hopkins, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1981, p. 285. See also Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354, trans. by H. A. R. Gibbs, London: Routledge 1929, p. 321. 2. Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, p. 286; here Hopkins ’abbreviated form“ Shar ’” has been replaced by “Sharia”. 3. See Pushpa Prasad, "Akbar and the Jains," in Irfan Habib, eds., Akbar and His India, Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press 1997, pp. 97-4. The father of the Maratha King, Raja Sambhaji, whom the young Akbar had joined, was none other than Shivaji, whom the political Hindu activists of today consider a superhero and after whom the intolerant Hindu party Shiv Sena has named itself (Shivaji himself was quite tolerant, like the Mughal -Historian Khafi Khan reported who was not an admirer of Shivaji in other respects). 5. See Iqtidar Alam Khan, "Akbar's Personality Traits and World Outlook: A Critical Reappraisal," in Habib, eds., Akbar and His India, p. 78. 6. María Rosa Menocal, The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain, New York: Little, Brown 2002, p. 86; dt. Die Palme im Westen, Munich: Droemer 2003. 7. Ibid., p. 85. 8. See Harry Eyres, "Civilization Is a Tree with Many Roots," Financial Times, July 23, 2005. As Jan Reed noted "The Moorish irrigation systems, which were later greatly expanded, remain the basis of agriculture in the parched regions of Spain and Portugal" (The Moors in Spain and Portugal, London: Faber & Faber 1974, p. 235). 9. Report by Michael Vatikiotis, “Islamizing Indonesia”, International Herald Tribune, 3. – 4. September 2005, p. 5. See also Vatikiotis, "The Struggle for Islam," Far Eastern Economic Review, December 11, 2003, and M. Syafi'i An - 204 - war, "Pluralism and Multiculturalism in Southeast Asia: Formulating Educational Agendas and Programs », ICIP Journal 2 (January 2005). 10. A related problem is how to interpret Islam in social and political contexts and that the interpretation should not be too narrow; see Ayesha Jalal, Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850, London: Routledge 2000. See also Gilles Kepel, Die neue Kreuzzüge. The Arab World and the Future of the West, Munich: Piper 2004. 11. The fact that, thanks to the commitment of courageous and far-sighted journalists, strong and largely independent media have been able to establish themselves in Pakistan is a decidedly positive development for peace and justice in Pakistan Country deserved greater recognition. The tradition of participation and fearlessness, established by magazines such as the Friday Times and the Herald (founded by the courageous and visionary Najam Sethi) and by newspapers such as The Dawn, The Nation, the Daily Times and the News, gives rise to high hopes for the future of the country. That would have liked Faiz Ahmed Faiz, the great early poet and dedicated editor of the Pakistan Times who was deeply committed to developing independent Pakistani media before the rule of the military and political extremism put an end to them. Like Najam Sethi later, he was imprisoned. 12. Husain Haqqani, Terrorism Still Thrives in Pakistan, International Herald Tribune, July 20, 2005, p. 8. See also his informative book Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 2005. Also Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: The Story of the Afghan Warlords, London: Pan 2001, and Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia, London: Tauris 2002. 13. See the Human Development Reports published annually by the United Nations, a project initiated by Mahbub ul Haq and led for many years. After Mahbub ul Haq's untimely death, this largely secular work in Pakistan was continued by an institute he founded (and which is now headed by his widow Khadija Haq). 14. Judea Pearl, “Islam Struggles to Stake Out Its Position”, International Herald Tribune, July 20, 2005. 15. Reference should be made here to the distinction that Mahmood Mamdani so clearly formulated: “I would like to question the widespread assumption state that extremist religious tendencies are to be equated with political terrorism. Terrorism is not a necessary consequence of religious tendencies, be they fundamentalist or secular. Rather, terrorism grows out of political contradictions »(Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror, New York: Doubleday 2004, p. 61 f.). 16. This is not to deny that the range of Islamic doctrines can be defined differently; see e.g. BM Syafi'i Anwar's distinction between the “legally inclusive approach” and the “materially exclusive approach” in his essay “The Future of Islam, Democracy, and Authoritarianism in the Muslim World”, ICIP Journal 2 ( March 2005). However, none of these varieties can make religion the all-embracing identity of a person. Chapter 5 West and Anti-West 1. Albert Tevoedjre, Winning the War Against Humiliation, New York: UNDP 2002, Report of the Independent Commission on Africa and the Challenges of the Third Millennium. This is the English translation of a report originally published in French: Vaincre l'humiliation, Paris 2002. 2. The love story told by William Dalrymple in his captivating novel White Mughals (London: Flamingo 2002), a love that transcends racial barriers disregarded India in the 18th century, when about a third of British men in India lived with Indian women, could hardly have been repeated in the following century under the ever stricter imperial regulations. 3. James Mill, The History of British India, London 1817; Chicago reprint: University of Chicago Press 1975, p. 247. 4. Quoted in John Clive's Introduction to Mill, The History of British India, p. Viii. 5. Mill, The History of British India, pp. 225–6. William Jones is often thought of as a typical "Orientalist", which in a certain sense he was. But the thesis of a common stance shared by all Orientalists - from William Jones to James Mill - can hardly be upheld. See Chapter 7 ("Indian Traditions and Western Imagination") of my book The Argumentative Indian, London: Allen Lane; New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux 2005. 7. Mill saw Jones' views on mathematics and astronomy in early India as "evidence of the gullibility with which the state of society among Hindus has for a time been viewed," and specifically he makes fun of the fact that Jones made these ascriptions "with a semblance of conviction" (The History of British India, p. 223 f.). In terms of content, Mill throws assertions about different facts into one pot, namely (1) the principle of gravitational attraction, (2) the daily rotation of the earth and (3) the movement of the earth around the sun. Aryabhata and Brahmagupta dealt mainly with the first two and made clear statements about them, not against the third. 8. Mill, The History of British India, pp. 223-9. Ibid., Pp. 248. 10. The Argumentative Indian, Chapters 6, 7 and 16. - 206 - 11. Partha Chattergee, The Nation and Its Fragments , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1993, pp. 6. 12. For these and related issues, see The Argumentative Indian, Chapters 1-4 and 6-8. 13. Akeel Bilgrami, "What Is a Muslim?", In: Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, eds., Identities, Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1995. 14. Mamphela Ramphele, Steering by the Stars: Being Young in South Africa , Cape Town: Tafelberg 2002, p. 15. 15. Fareed Zakaria, "Culture Is Destiny: A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew", Foreign Affairs 73 (March-April 1994), p. 113. 16. Quoted in International Herald Tribune June 13, 1995, p. 4. See also Lee's insightful autobiography From Third World to First: The Singapore Story, 1965-2000, New York: HarperCollins 2000. 17. WS Wong, "The Real World of Human Rights," speech of the Foreign Minister of Singapore at the Second International Human Rights Congress in Vienna 1993. 18. Quoted in John F. Cooper, "Beijing's Post-Tienanmen Foreign Policy: The Human Rights Factor", Issues and Studies 30 (October 1994), p. 69; See also Jack Donnelly, “Human Rights and Asian Values: A Defense of ‹Western› Universalism,” in: Joanne Bauer and Daniel A. Bell, eds., The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999. 19 . I discussed the facts in Human Rights and Asian Values: Sixteenth Morgenthau Memorial Lecture on Ethics and Foreign Policy, New York: Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs 1997, abridged reprint in The New Republic, 14/21. July 1997. See also my book Ökonomie für den Menschen, Munich: Hanser 2000, and also "The Reach of Reason: East and West", New York Review of Books, July 20, 2000, reprinted in The Argumentative Indian. 20. Economy for the people and further, together with Jean Drèze, Hunger and Public Action, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1989. 21. Calculated on the basis of data from the Stockholm Peace Research Institute, 22. Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture, London: Methuen 1992, p. Xii. 23. Meyer Fortes and Edward E. Evans-Pritchard, African Political Systems, New York: Oxford University Press 1940, p. 12. 24. Appiah, In My Father’s House, p. Xi. 25.Even political movements that only raise local demands, such as the Palestinians, who demand their own sovereign territory, are interpreted in a political-fundamentalist way as examples of general opposition to Western domination, regardless of how those affected (in this case the Palestinians) interpret the regional conflict themselves. Chapter 6 Culture and Oppression 1. I dealt with this question in “How Does Culture Matter?”, In: Vijayendra Rao and Michael Walton, eds., Culture and Public Action, Stanford, Calif .: Stanford University Press 2004. 2. See Joel Mokyr's balanced assessment of this difficult problem in Why Ireland Starved: A Quantitative and Analytical History of the Irish Economy, 1800-1850, London: Allen & Unwin 1983, pp. 291-29. See also Mokyr's conclusion that "Britain regarded Ireland as a foreign and even a hostile nation" (p. 291). 3. See Cecil Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger: Ireland, 1845-9, London: Hamish Hamilton 1962, p. 76. 4. See Andrew Roberts, Churchill und seine Zeit, Munich: dtv 1998, p. 294. 5. Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington, eds., Streit umwerte, Munich: Goldmann 2004, p. 9. 6. See Noel E. McGinn, Donald R. Snodgrass, Yung Bong Kim, Shin-Bok Kim and Quee -Young Kim, Education and Development in Korea, Cambridge, Mass .: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University 1980. 7. William K. Cummings, Education and Equality in Japan, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1980, p. 17 8. See Herbert Passin, Society and Education in Japan, New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University 1965, pp. 209 ff .; also Cummings, Education and Equality in Japan, p. 17. 9. Quoted in Shumpei Kumon and Henry Rosovsky, The Political Economy of Japan, Vol. 3, Cultural and Social Dynamics, Stanford, Calif .: Stanford University Press 1992, p. 330. 10. See Carol Gluck, Japan's Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1985. 11. That cultural freedom first appeared in the United Nations World Development Report 2004 (New York: UNDP 2004) List of criteria "human development" was added, increases the informative value of the analysis of human development enormously. 12. See "Other People", published in the Proceedings of the British Academy 2002 and also under the title "Other People - Beyond Identity", The New Republic, December 18, 2000. - 208 - Chapter 7 Globalization and Contradiction 1. The Advancement of Learning, 1605; New edition in BHG Wormald, Francis Bacon: History, Politics and Science, 1561–1626, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1993, pp. 356 f. 2. I answered this question on June 8, 2000 in my acceptance speech for the award of the honorary doctorate (« Global Doubts ») at Harvard University, reprinted in Harvard Magazine 102 (August 2000). 3. TB Macaulay, Indian Education: Minute of the 2nd February, 1835, reprinted in GM Young, Ed., Macaulay: Prose and Poetry, Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press 1952, p. 722. 4. Howard Eves , An Introduction to the History of Mathematics, 6th ed., New York: Saunders College Publishing House 1990, p. 237. See also Ramesh Gangolli, "Asian Contributions to Mathematics", Portland Public Schools Geocultural Baseline Essay Series 1999. 5. It must be recognized that Britain, under the leadership of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, has played an important role in pushing the G8 countries in this direction. Even social movements headed by well-known personalities such as Bob Geldof (regardless of the skepticism of the academic world) have contributed quite a bit to such initiatives. 6. See Jeffrey Sachs, The End of Poverty. An economic program for a fairer world, Munich: Siedler 2005. 7. My essay “Gender and Cooperative Conflict”, in: Irene Tinker, ed., Persistent Inequalities, New York: Oxford University Press 1990, examines the relevance and meaning of the combination of cooperation and conflict. 8. See J. F. Nash, "The Bargaining Problem", Econometrica 18 (1950); Sylvia Nasar, A Beautiful Mind, New York: Simon & Schuster 1999. 9. The pioneering theorists of the market economy - from Adam Smith, Léon Walras and Francis Edgeworth to John Hicks, Oscar Lange, Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow - have tried to make it clear that that market outcomes depend deeply on resource allocation and other determinants, and they have made suggestions, since Adam Smith, how to arrive at a cheaper and fairer solution. 10. See Paul A. Samuelson, The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure, Review of Economics and Statistics 35 (1954); Kenneth Arrow, "Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care," American Economic Review 53 (1963); George Akerlof, An Economic Theorist’s Book of Tales, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1984; Joseph Stiglitz, "Information and Economic Analysis: A Perspective," Economic Journal 95 (1985). 11. See George Soros, The Open Society. For a reform of global capitalism, Berlin: Fest 2001. 12. See among others Joseph Stiglitz, Die Schatten der Globalisierung, Berlin: Siedler 2002, and Sachs, Das Ende der Armut. - 209 - 13. According to research by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, they accounted for 84.31 percent during the 1990s, and the more recent figures suggest a consolidation rather than a reversal of this trend. The problem was discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. Only one of the G8 countries (Japan) does not export any weapons. 14. The Vaccine Fund and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) have done a lot to make vaccines available in poorer countries. A good example of an innovative idea of ​​how to create better incentives for the development of such drugs is the possibility of guaranteeing bulk purchase in advance by globally active NGOs and other international institutions; see Michael Kremer and Rachel Glennerster, Strong Medicine: Creating Incentives for Pharmaceutical Research on Neglected Diseases, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2004. 15. The general problem of the "global frontlines of modern medicine" is enlighteningly addressed by Richard Horton, Health Wars , New York: New York Review of Books 2003. See also Paul Farmer, Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor, Berkeley: University of California Press 2003, and Michael Marmor, Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts, Copenhagen: World Health Organization 2003. 16. The role of the state in the just functioning of market processes is discussed with many examples in my book India: Development and Participation, Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002, which I co-authored with Jean Drèze 17. See my article “Sharing the World”, The Little Magazine (Delhi) 5 (2004). 18. David Hume, Principles of Moral, Stuttgart: Reclam 2002, p. 111 f. 8th chapter Multiculturalism and Freedom 1. Economy for the People, Munich: Hanser 2000. 2. On common American-European problems see also Timothy Garton Ash , Free world. Europe, America and the Chance of the Crisis, Munich: Hanser 2004. 3. James A. Goldston, “Multiculturalism Is Not the Culprit”, International Herald Tribune, August 30, 2005, p. 6. For a different perspective see also Gilles Kepel , The New Crusades. The Arab World and the Future of the West, Munich: Piper 2004, especially Chapter 7. 4. Julie Henry, "Dumbed-Down GCSEs Are a ‹Scam› to Improve League Tables, Claim Critics", Daily Telegraph, August 28, 2005, P. 1. 5. On the far-reaching consequences of bastardization in today's world, see Homi Bhabha, The Location of Culture, New York: Routledge 1994. 6. Agence France-Presse, news of August 18, 2005. - 210 - 7 This description comes from Lord Parekh, the notable chairman of the Commission on the Future of Multi-ethnic Britain, in A Britain We All Belong To, Guardian, October 11, 2000. There are many similar statements, and often a "federal" system is called for in a much more primitive form. However, Bhikhu Parekh has fully understood other conceptions of multiculturalism in his own writings; see in particular Re-thinking Multi-culturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory, Basingstoke: Palgrave 2000. 8. See Cornelia Sorabji, India Calling, London: Nisbet 1934, and Vera Brittain, The Women at Oxford, London: Harrap 1960. 9. From the text of a press conference given by Prime Minister Blair on July 26, 2005. Tony Blair shows a strong desire for cultural fairness by treating the newly established Islamic schools in the same way as the older Christian schools. This question was also discussed in Chapter 6. 10. See M. Athar Ali, "The Perception of India in Akbar and Abu'l Fazl," in Irfan Habib, ed., Akbar and His India, Delhi: Oxford University Press 1997, p. 220. 11. On the tradition to debate different schools of religious thought (including agnosticism and atheism), see my book The Argumentative Indian, London: Allen Lane; New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux 2005. 12. From a press conference on July 26, 2005. 13th Indian Round Table Conference (Second Session) September 7th, 1931– December 1st, 1931: Proceedings, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1932 ; see also C. Rajagopalachari and JC Kumarappa, eds., The Nation's Voice, Ahmedabad: Mohanlal Maganlal Bhatta 1932. 14. MK Gandhi, "The Future of India", International Affairs 10 (November 1931), p. 739. 15. Apart Of the atrocities that broke out in that terrible incident in Gujarat in 2002, the ideological problems that this largely artificially fueled violence brought to light (including the attempt to reject Gandhiji's integrative ideas) are enlighteningly discussed in Rafiq Zakaria, Communal Rage in Secular India, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan 2002. 16. Indian Express, August 13, 2005. 17. Thomas Friedman, The world is flat, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp 2006. However, India's record, especially in Kashmir, is far less satisfactory. Both the intrusion of terrorism from outside and the rebellion inside have harmed the solution to the Kashmir issue. Chapter 9 Freedom to Think 1. See also his moving and depressingly illuminating book: Shaharyar M. Khan, The Shallow Graves of Rwanda, with a foreword by Mary Robinson, New York: IB Tauris 2000. 2. See Will Kymlicka, Political Philosophy Today. An introduction, Frankfurt: Campus-Verlag 1996. 3. See “The Real News from Iraq”, Sunday Telegraph, August 28, 2005, p. 24. 4. Derek Walcott, “Names”, in: Tales of the Islands. Poems. Selected and from the English by Klaus Martens, Munich: Hanser 1993, p. 73.