How much is 91 grams of meth

A synthetic substance. Usually a white powder that stimulates the central nervous system (CNS). Methamphetamine was first made in Japan in 1919 and has limited therapeutic use; it is mostly made in illegal laboratories mainly in the USA and the Far East. It is under international control and is closely related to amphetamine.

chemistry

Methamphetamine (CAS-537-46-2) belongs to the phenethylamine family, which includes numerous substances that can act as stimulants, entactogenic or hallucinogenic. Methamphetamine is that N, α-dimethylphenethylamine. The full systematic name according to the IUPAC nomenclature is N, α-dimethylbenzenethanamine. The asymmetric α-carbon atom gives rise to two enantiomers. These two forms were formerly known as [-] - or lStereoisomer or [+] - or d-Stereoisomer are referred to, however, in modern chemistry as R- and S.-Stereoisomers defined.

Molecular structure



Molecular formula: C10H15N
Molecular weight: 149.2 g / mol

Top of page

Physical form

Methamphetamine base is a colorless, volatile oil that is insoluble in water. The most common salt is the hydrochloride (CAS-51-57-0): a water-soluble white or off-white powder or crystals. Illegal products are mostly in powder form, but the pure crystalline hydrochloride is also known as "ice". Methamphetamine tablets may have logos similar to those found on MDMA and other ecstasy tablets.

Top of page

pharmacology

Methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that causes hypertension and tachycardia along with feelings of increased confidence, sociability, and energy. It suppresses appetite and fatigue and leads to insomnia. After oral use, the effects usually set in within 30 minutes and last for several hours. Later on, users may feel irritable, restless, anxious, depressed, and lethargic. The substance increases the effect of the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Methamphetamine has a higher potency than amphetamine, but the effects are hardly distinguishable in uncontrolled situations. The S.-Isomer acts stronger than that R.-Isomer. The therapeutic dose of the S.-Isomers is up to 25 mg orally. It is rapidly absorbed after ingestion and the maximum levels in blood plasma are around 0.001-0.005 mg / l. The plasma half-life is approximately 9 hours. Important metabolites are 4-hydroxymethamphetamine and amphetamine. Deaths that can be directly attributed to methamphetamine are rare. In most fatal poisonings, the blood concentration was above 0.5 mg / l. Urinary methamphetamine analysis is complicated by the fact that it is also a metabolite of some other drugs (such as selegiline). Acute intoxication causes severe cardiovascular disorders as well as behavioral problems with agitation, confusion, paranoia, impulsivity, and violence. Chronic methamphetamine use causes neurochemical and neuroanatomical changes. Dependency - which manifests itself in increased tolerance to the substance - leads to impairment of memory, the willingness to make decisions and the ability to express yourself verbally. Some of the symptoms are similar to those of paranoid schizophrenia. These effects can persist even after using the drug, but they usually go away eventually. Injecting methamphetamine carries the same risk of viral infection (e.g. HIV and hepatitis) as other injectable drugs such as heroin. When methamphetamine is smoked, it reaches the brain much faster. Smokable drugs (e.g. methamphetamine, crack, cocaine) are much more likely to be addictive and are more likely to cause problems with this intake than with oral intake.

Top of page

Synthesis and precursors

The S.-Enantiomer is mostly obtained by reducing l-Ephedrine, d. H. (1R.,2S.) -2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol, or of d-Pseudoephedrine, d. H. (1S.,2S.) -2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol. Both ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are commercially available and are used in some drugs. Ephedrine can also be obtained from plants Ephedra vulgaris L. (referred to as Ma Huang in Chinese medicine). Both the Leuckart route and the reductive amination (e.g. by the aluminum foil process) of 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P, BMK, phenylacetone) result in a racemic mixture of the R- and S.- enantiomers. The synthetic route used can be determined by creating the impurity profile. Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and 1-phenyl-2-propanone are listed in Table I of the 1988 United Nations Convention to Combat the Illicit Trafficking of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The relevant EU legislation is based on Council Regulation (EEC) No. 3677/90 (with subsequent amendments), which regulates trade between the EU and third countries.

Top of page

application

Methamphetamine can be swallowed, snorted and, less often, injected or smoked. In contrast to the sulfate salt of amphetamine, methamphetamine hydrochloride, especially in crystalline form ("ice"), is sufficiently volatile to be smoked. In the case of oral intake, a dose can be a few tens to several hundred milligrams, depending on the purity and the proportions of the isomers.

Top of page

other names

The term metamphetamine (international non-proprietary name INN) applies strictly only to the specific enantiomer (S.)-N, α-dimethylbenzenethanamine. The name metamphetamine is also required by Directives 65/65 / EEC and 92/27 / EEC for the labeling of medicinal products within the EU. In the United Kingdom and some other countries, the name methylamphetamine is used in drug law. Other common chemical names are N-Methylamphetamine, 1-phenyl-2-methylaminopropane, phenylisopropylmethylamine and deoxyephedrine. Along with amphetamine and other, lesser-known substances (e.g. benzphetamine), methamphetamine falls as that N-Methyl derivative of amphetamine, sometimes under the group of "amphetamines".

There are hundreds of other synonyms and protected names (see, for example, http://www.chemindustry.com/chemicals/55866.html). The names of “the street” are also Speed, Crank, Meth, Kristallmeth, Pervitin (especially in Eastern Europe; this name was adopted from an earlier drug), Yaba and Shabu (in some countries in the Far East).

Top of page

analysis

The marquis field test shows an orange-brown color. The Simon test (for secondary amines) gives a blue color, which distinguishes methamphetamine from primary amines such as amphetamine (red color). In the mass spectrum are the strong ions m / z = 58, 91, 59, 134, 65, 56, 42 and 57. The identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be carried out by N-Derivatization still improve. With gas chromatography, the detection limit in urine is <10 μg / l.

Top of page

Control status

The S.- Enantiomer is listed in Appendix II of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The racemate (a mixture of the R- and S.Stereoisomers in the ratio 50:50) is listed in the same annex, while the R.-Enantiomer is not listed separately in the Convention.

Top of page

Medical application

Methamphetamine is sometimes used therapeutically to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit due to hyperactivity (ADHD).

Top of page

Publications

Top of page

Multimedia and infographics

Top of page

swell

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (2005), Methylamphetamine Review (report), Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, London (http://www.drugs.gov.uk/publication-search/acmd/ACMD-Meth-Report-November-2005?view=Binary).

Cook, C. E., Jeffcoat, A. R., Hill, J. M., et al. (1993), "Pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine self-administered to human subjects by smoking S - (+) - methamphetamine hydrochloride", Drug Metabolism and Disposition 21, pp. 717-23.

Hammer, M. R. (2006), A Key to Methamphetamine-Related Literature, New York State Department of Health, New York (http://www.nyhealth.gov/diseases/aids/harm_reduction/crystalmeth/docs/meth_literature_index.pdf).

Iversen, L. (2006), Speed, Ecstasy, Ritalin: the Science of Amphetamines, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

King, L. A. and McDermott, S. (2004), ‘Drugs of abuse’, in: Moffat, A. C., Osselton, M. D. and Widdop, B. (eds.) Clarke's Analysis of Drugs and Poisons, 3rd Edition, Volume 1, pp. 37-52, Pharmaceutical Press, London.

Moffat, A. C., Osselton, M, D. and Widdop, B, (eds.) (2004), Clarke's Analysis of Drugs and Poisons, 3rd Edition, Volume 2, Pharmaceutical Press, London.

Remberg, B. and Stead, A. H. (1999), ‘Drug characterization / impurity profiling, with special focus on methylamphetamine: recent work of the United Nations International Drug Control Program’, Bulletin on Narcotics 11 (1 and 2), pp. 97-117.

United Nations (2006), Multilingual Dictionary of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances under International Control, United Nations, New York.

United Nations (2006), Recommended Methods for the Identification and Analysis of Amphetamine, Methamphetamine and their Ring-Substituted Analogues in Seized Materials (revised and updated), Manual for Use by National Drug Testing Laboratories, United Nations, New York.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2003), Ecstasy and Amphetamines Global Survey 2003, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna (http://www.unodc.org/pdf/publications/report_ats_2003-09-23_1.pdf).

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2004), World Drug Report 2004, Part 1: Analysis, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna (http://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2004/volume_1.pdf).

Top of page